Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (abbreviated as ADHD) is a term that used to describe a range of behavior related problems leading to lower concentration and poor attention. It is a problem which affects many people across all ages in the world.
ADHD leads to development of many learning difficulties in children since they cannot pay full attention in class. While some individuals may exhibit one condition alone, other may exhibit a wide range of conditions including impulsiveness, restlessness, hyperactivity, and many others.
The severity of the condition depends on the range of symptoms that are exhibited by the child. Apart from academic problems, children with ADHD also suffer from social problems and most of them have shown inability to socialize with their peers at home or at school. The condition is also known by other words like hyperkinetic due to the common factor of restlessness which is exhibited by children suffering from the condition.
The condition can be categorized together with other neurobehavioral defects which affects a wide range of population. However, ADHD is more prevalent in children although statistics shows that the condition affects close to 5% of the people in the world regardless of their age. The symptoms the conditions are more evident in children than in adults and are mainly noted in a close supervision set up like in schools.
There is also gender variation in the prevalence of the condition and it has been diagnosed twice in males and females. In some case, the disease has been shown to be chronic where more than 45% of individuals who are diagnosed with the condition in their early age progress with the symptoms late to their adulthood. As individuals grow, they develop coping mechanisms which decrease the prevalence of the symptoms of the condition in later adulthood.
ADHD presents one of the greatest academic challenges that teachers have to deal with. Unlike normal children who are attentive in class, ADHD children exhibit a wide range of attention difficult which affects their academic performance.
Therefore it is the duty of the teacher to come up with working strategies to help ADHD children to perform like the rest in class. There are various strategies that have already been proved quite effective in assisting ADHD children to improve their academic performance.
This paper will discuss ADHD in school going children. The paper will first have an overview of ADHD including its definition, pathopysiology, symptoms, and treatment. Then it will review the social and academic difficulties that ADHD children goes through and finally it will review strategies that can be used by teachers to help students with ADHD to perform well in class.
ADHD was first recorded by Scottish physician Alexander Crinchton in 1798. Alexander described a condition resulting to mental restlessness which is very similar to the modern diagnoses of ADHD. However, ADHD was recognized in 1902 by a British pediatrics George Fredrick. Fredrick also defined a condition which was very similar to ADHD but he recognized it as an abnormal physical condition affecting children which as more evident in their studies (Cleave and Leslie, 2008).
Extensive research on ADHD has shown that it can be caused by biological or environment factors and the combination of the two aggravates the symptoms of the condition. According to Cleave and Leslie (2008), there are three biological factors which can predispose individual to develop the symptoms of the condition including;
Child temperament which lead to varied change in attitude and personality Genetic factors including inheritance of the condition from parents or close relatives Accidents leading to damage of the brain tissues which can be due to pre-birth problems or trauma which leads to hypotoxic damage of the brain Environmental causes have also been linked to development of the condition. Environmental causes include a wide range of factors that compose the growth environment (Stern and Stern, 2002).
There are wide ranges of environment factors which can predispose individuals to the development of the condition including the family stress, the style of parenting earlier difficulties faced in education, growth in areas prone to negative behaviors like violence, peer influence, and many others. For example, research has shown that children who grow up with violent parents or alcoholic parents are prone to development of symptoms of the condition than others.
In the United States ADHD has remained on of the most controversial social and medical issue. Different stakeholders like medics, social workers, media, and others have all questioned the diagnoses criteria in ADHD with some arguing that the condition is over diagnosed by the present DSM-IV criteria.
However this controversy in the diagnoses criteria stems from the systematic development of the diagnoses tool keeping into consideration that ADHD cannot be diagnosed using clinical signs.
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