Aztec & Inca DBQ The Aztec and Inca were two very advanced cultural societies for being on of the early civilizations of Central America. These Empires maintained a high level of cultural development due to their social, architectural, and religious aspects. Additional documents that would have aided the explanation of these cultures would be from a priest and his role was a significant part in the community as well as from an architect or constructor, to describe some of the obstacles they needed to surpass in order to erect the magnificent buildings and temples.
The social effects of the Aztec & Incan Empires clearly emphasized the superb cultural development that occurred there (documents 1,6,7,8,10,11). The Mendoza Codex exhibits the daily activities and customs of the Aztec realm (doc. 1). It depicts the type of work depending on gender roles, in which men performed more of the hunting activities and the women were taught how to work with crafts. The picture also shows how the older generations taught their young the new techniques and traditions. (Insert authors’ pov/bias here). The page from the Codex Mendoza shows the advanced marketplaces they had because of the great variety of goods (doc. ). The numerous manufactured wares also show the type of work and materials that were needed to be done in order to produce the items. (Insert authors’ pov/bias here). In the memoirs of the conquistador Bernal Diaz del Castillo, he describes the quality and vast amounts of goods sold at the Aztec marketplace (doc. 7). He takes not of how the items were displayed and the policies that enforced order throughout the market. However, he does show bias because he compared the Aztec marketplace to that of Portugal, and is truly only interested in gold, silver and slaves.
He was also surprised by the way the slaves were able to walk around the city without being restrained. The photograph of the Chinampa system shows the importance of the agricultural method as well as how the geography of the area promoted its use (doc. 8). From the lake dredged islands, much force needed to be exerted by the workers in order to harvest the crops. Although a laboring job, the fields reaped great benefits since they produced seven crops per year. This amount contributed to a mixed diet, which led to better health and a greater population. (Insert authors’ pov/bias here).
The picture of the Incan bridge shows the intercommunication between people from different parts of the area to do so with ease (doc. 10). The bridges not only encouraged communication between peoples, but also to aid them form gathering crops from one side of the area to the other, and to increase trade between the two parts of the Incan Empire. (Insert authors’ pov/bias here). The picture from the First New Chronicle and Good Government, illustrated by Felipe Guanan Poma de Ayala, depicts the wide use and dependence on quipu to govern the Incan Empire (doc. 1). This mneumonic device allowed for rulers and imperial officials to keep track of various statistics including agricultural products, and debts owed by the people. (Insert authors’ pov/bias here). Architecture also contributed to the stimulation of culture in the central American societies (documents 2,9,10,13). The photograph of the carved glyph on the Tenayuca Pyramid in Mexico City exhibits the skill and precision that architects had in constructing a building (doc. 2).
Although all these sculptors had were rocks to carve into the rock, they did so in a way that was very proficient and showed their expertise in architecture. (Insert authors’ pov/bias here). The twelve cornered stone, shows the great amount of skill and effort the Incan architects had and needed in order to make such reliable and dependable walls (doc. 9) . The walls are of quality strength because they have lasted from the day they were built up until now without the use of any mortar, just the precise aligning of carved rocks. (Insert authors’ pov/bias here).
Apart from architecture, the Incan engineers built reliable bridges, just like the one that still stands today (doc. 10). This shows the expertise in bridge – making as well as how the bridge could have helped architects build their structures, by using the bridge to cross over the chasm and retrieve rocks that could be used as carving rocks or as building materials. The photograph of Machu Picchu shows the great amount of effort and skill required to create a society that could be depended on and maintained in the mountains (doc. 13). (Insert authors’ pov/bias here).
The Incan architects truly show their might with this one, all buildings and structures were put together from hand carved rocks without the use of mortar. The builders also had to create a way for the city to not fall down, which also took much thought and skill. Lastly, religion was a great supporter for the cultural development in the Aztec and Incan Empires (documents 3,4,5, 12). The civil calendar used by the Aztecs shows the sophistication and complexity of activities throughout the course of the year, and how they paid close attention to religious ceremonies and the agricultural cycle (doc. 3).
In this society the gods needed to be worshipped in order to produce great and bountiful harvests, so the veneration of goods was a necessity. (Insert authors’ pov/bias here). The chart describes the rituals that were associated for each month of the year and how it coincided with the Aztec calendar (doc. 4). The chart shows the intense religious devotion of many gods through ways of sacrificing people of certain age groups for each month. (Insert authors’ pov/bias here). The photograph from the Florentine Codex by Friar Bernadino, exhibits the great sacrificial society of the Mexica people (doc 5).
This document shows bias because to the people of Central America, human sacrifice is part of their religion and way of worshiping their gods and giving their offerings, while to a Franciscan monk who is a Christian begger, these ways are seen as heretic and the citizens are considered savages. The first new chronicle and good government by Felipe Guaman Panade Ayala exhibits the great devotion of Incas and their leaders to their sun god (doc. 12). They were strictly believers of the sun god and many other gods and since the document was written by someone who is of Incan descent, it shows bias.
He sees the kings rejection to the Christian missionary Fray Vincente, as an act of great courage, loyalty, and devotion to his god, and is seen as a religious figure to other followers of the sun god. All in all, despite some of the Aztec’s and Inca’s outdated technology methods, and tools, they were at quite an advanced level of cultural development. Together the social, architectural, and religious aspects contributed to these successful societies. This essay receives a score of 9! It covers all requirements.
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