25/02/2013 HNC/HND in Business Pathways Interim Assignment HNBS 121 Human Resource Management [pic] By Hoda Ahmed Ibrahim (10799) Lecturer: Mr S. Sharma CONTENTS TASK 1 (1. 1) Origins of HRM and PM * Human Resource Management vs. Personnel Management…………………………… Page 4 (1. 2) Role, Functions and Responsibility * Human Resource Management……………………………………………………………………….. Page 5 * Line Managers …………………………………………………………………………………………….. Page 6-7 (1. 3) Equal Opportunities, Employment Legislation and Discrimination Legal Framework …………………………………………………………………………………………. Page 7 TASK 2 (2. 1) Human Resource Planning * Definition and Background ……………………………………………………………………………….. Page 8 * Scottish Power HR Planning……………………………………………………………………………….. Page 9 * Tesco HR Planning…………………………………………………………………………………………….. Page 9-10 (2. 2) Compare Recruitment and Selection Scottish Power and Tesco Case Study…………………………………………………………………… Page 10 * Structure……………………………………………………………………………………………………………… Page 11 * Job Specifaction…………………………………………………………………………………………………….. Page 11 * Person Specification………………………………………………………………………………………………… Page 11 * Assessment Centers…………………………………………………………………………………. …………….. Page 11 * Summary of Task 1 and 2. ………………………………………………………………………………………. Page 12 TASK 3 (3. 1) Reward Systems and Motivational Theories * Herzberg Theory………………………………………………………………………………………………… Page 13 * Maslow Hierarchy of Needs……………………………………………………………………………….. Page 14 * McGregor‘s Motivational Theory………………………………………………………………………… Page 15 * Total Rewards……………………………………………………… ………………………………………………. Page 15 (3. 2) Job Evaluation Tesco Case Study………………………………………………………………………………………………… Page 16 (3. 3)Monitoring Performance Marks and Spencer’s Case Study…………………………………………………………………………………… Page17 TASK 4 (4. 1) Reasons for cessation of employment * By Performance,Redeployment,Retraining…………………………………………………………. Page 18 * Mutual Agreement, By Notice, Breach of Contract………………………………………………… Page 19 * Impact of Law and Regulation……………………………………………………………………………….
Page 20 (4. 2) Exit Procedures and Best Practice………………………………………………………………………. Page 20 End of Assignment * Summary of Task 3 and 4……………………………………………………………………………………… Page 21 * Self -Evaluation……………………………………………………………………………………………………. Page 21-22 * Appendix 1 and 2 …………………………………………………………………………………………………. Page 23 * List of References Authors…………………………………………………………………………………….. Page 24 List of References Internet Sources……………………………………………………………………….. Page 25 *Appendix on all part of the assignment which was removed*…………………………………….. Page 26-32 TASK 1 1. 1 Human Resource Management vs. Personnel Management Personal Management Reddy (2004) cited Dale Yoder’s simplified explanation of personal management is the process of management, it is responsible for carrying out efficient power and use of resource planning. The strategies used to guarantee efficient input from labour highlights personal management theory.
Personal management process focuses mainly on the individual within the population of a firm. Human Resources Management Amos et al (2008) expressed that HRM is the system of philosophies, policies, programs, practices and decisions that affect the attitudes, behaviour, and performance of the people of an organization so that people are stratified, perform and contribute to the organization achieving its strategic objectives Human Resource Management vs. Personnel Management Aswatthappa (2005) suggested that Human Resource differs from Personnel Management both in scope and orientation.
HRM views people as an important source or asset to be used for the benefit of organizations, employees and the society, whereas as PM has a limited scope and inverted orientation. Storey (1987:4) looks, at HRM as a “radically different philosophy and approach to management of people at work” whereas Legge stated there “not a lot” difference while (1989:27). HRM in his view is a new way of managing personnel and is deemed a ‘departure from orthodoxy’ personnel management. of traditional Storey (1989). Further information of the differences can be looked at in the appendix section of this assignment.
Many authors strongly identify a difficulty in noticing clear differences between personal management and HRM and stick to the story that the most noticeable change is a re-naming or re-labeling process Butel et al (1998). The basic ideas of Personal Management led to a proliferation of HRM language. HRM is an adapted idea and better equipped to deal with the people in an organization than that of personal management. Both of which are primarily focused on techniques that provide the foundations of employment Butel et al (1998). _________________________________________________________________________________ . 2 Role, Functions of Human Resource Management and Managers Human Resource Management Human Resource Management (HRM) functions is conducting job analysis, planning future needs and supplies, recruiting and selecting employees, orienting and training employees, managing wages and benefits, performance management and appraisal, communicating discipline and services), building employee commitment. In addition training and development); employee relations; working in partnership with functional areas. HRM can start a new policy but a line-manager is responsible for it. HR proposes but the line dispose’ Armstrong (2006:97). Line managers achieve HR objectives. HR departments give the firm methods to develop is human resource. The line manager that translates these objectives in to action is responsible to develop and utilize manpower Ashokkurana et al (2009:20-21). Recruitment; the job role is analyzed before any recruitment takes place. The requirements of the work are examined in preparation for the job description. A specification is produced of the attributes a suitable candidate will need in order to perform the job Armstrong (2006).
Selection; are ways to find the best person to employ from the many applications likely to be received for a position. The first step is to narrow down the most suitable for roles with many applications. The candidate is then compared to the requirements of the role Armstrong (2006). Training and coaching; is the way it is discovered for a particular method of training, what is required and who should receive that knowledge. Development through training manifests itself when key employee’s progress through the company in a planned manner.
Organizations that provide such development through training are closely associated with the career development of the individual Armstrong (2006). Performance appraisal; a method used widely yet not throughout is a method of assessing employees performance by setting targets. HRM practitioners are more ever than not likely to be at the front of the structure of this method, helping mainly in the methods design. The administration of the process is left to line managers in most scenario‘s. Generally, the process is assessed by way of calculating achievement in the periods between assessment interviews.
Criteria is set before tasks are performed and performance is then weighed from this. The results may highlight the need to re-train or sometimes a form of financial bonus. Grievances, discipline, termination, ethical issues and equality of opportunity are other key factors which need to be taken in to delicate care Cole (2004). Line Managers: Generally, the responsibilities held by management can be now handed over to line managers. Especially a senior line manager will have to uphold management daily, the operational figures, giving expert knowledge, he format of placing work and schedules, overseeing work procedures, ensuring quality and employees are dealt with accordingly and assessing performance of operations. A precise role and task or practice to act is formed on the basis the criteria and techniques provided by a higher authority. Thus, de-fragmenting of an organization into smaller and more manageable groups is ideal Robbins and DeCenzo (2008). Recruitment and Selection: A line manager will have to create formal documents such as job analysis and set-up details of a job as well as the precise features of the job.
It is the responsibility to gather information to form a systemically analysis, so that is made aware of the work performance, the resources used, the working environment and the locality of the jobs within the organisation. Line managers will have to advertise all vacancies within prior to thinking of using outside sources, the decision to use external uses is questioned. Leading on to communication, line manager have to ensure frequent up-dates are provided to candidates. To ensure likely candidates are matched with capabilities to ensure expected performance for the job, saving finances and time-consumption Mckeena and Beech (2002).
Training and Development: Line Managers role to set training and development programmes for employees, to heighten their abilities and perform the job well. The organisation and the employee will notice the affect this has; more trained employee’s means objectives are met. By upholding a suitable environment, mentoring and meetings will allow employees to feel valued and motivated to do the job Times (2012). Equal opportunities & Discipline: Line managers have to abide by the laws and mission of the organisation by not misguiding and over confidently suggesting more than capable when placing advertisement.
To not form views upon sex, age, race, religion, opinions and disability targeting the candidate. To ensure employees are dealt with correctly and fairly. Line manager’s responsibility to establish equal opportunities and policies for which employees can show respect whilst keeping objectives of the organisation in mind. It is also the line manager’s responsibility to clearly express to employees on the rules and policies which HRM wants to be followed. However, if there is a breach in any of the policies, then it is done to the line manager into how to discipline.
Whether it be a formal warning, hearing or extreme measures of dismissal Mckeena and Beech (2002). . Performance Management: It is the line manager’s role to oversee performance appraisal, assessing the employee’s performance, establish targets and goals for the employee over time. Eventually, the line manager will give regular feedback. To also identify any problems in performance or general check-up. Line-mangers can either issue warning to the employee or give praise for doing the job as wanted Mckeena and Beech (2002). . _________________________________________________________________________________ . 3Legal Framework Legislation such as equal pay and disability rights have been instrumental in changing the way HRM and Personnel Management system dealing with statutory and non-statutory issues. Personnel management represented a highly compartmentalized system. HRM strives to encompass all systems into one fluid system understood by, and catering for all Cole (2004). Human resource management is impacted directly against arbitrary or unfair discrimination against individuals, usually on the grounds of their sex, marital status, race, nationality, disability and religion”.
The principle statutes which have to be referred to in human resources are the equal pay act 1970, sex discrimination act 1975 s amended by the sex discrimination act 1986, race relation act 1976, fair employment act 1989 (Ireland) dealing with unlawful discrimination on grounds of religion and the European community law for example article 119 on principle of equal pay Stredwick (2005). Sex Discrimination Act for 1975 helped look after employees against prejudice on the basis of gender; this was helpful correcting job advertisements, the rocess of selecting employees for jobs, giving opportunities in promotion and training or career developments. The Race Relations Act 1976 made legal provision on race Stredwick (2005). Equal Pay Act 1970 gave the opportunity for both genders to have equal amounts of pay for the same work or level of position. The act identifies key knowledge for human resources to bear in mind; the right of a person, equally treated in respect to the agreement of employment when that comes to action Stredwick (2005).
Disability Discrimination Act comes about in 1995, stating that companies ought to meet the needs of those who are disabled and provide mobility access and provisions on the treatment towards them Stredwick (2005). Cole suggested “it introduces a longer, more searching definition of disability” (2004:417). This gives human resources a more thorough description of what comes across as discriminating. Arrangements will have to be made to the workforce, in order for a disabled person to not feel beneath worthy and is in the same level as other employees.
To ensure there is no victimisation and complaints are seen to Stredwick (2005). TASK 2 2. 1 Human Resource Planning of (Tesco and Scottish Power) Cole 2004 explained more simply that “human resource planning (HRP), like any other form of planning, is a means to an end p168. This will elevate the notion to understanding the concept of keeping to the objectives. The most important steps of the HRP cycle has important points beginning with the need for HR. Human resource planning is adopted by organisation, through an assessment of the overall strengths and weakness of the employee situation.
This particular assessment will display, where needed the amount of long-term proposals for HRP, targeted at protecting valid numbers and types of likely employers to pursue the requirement needs to produce to the level of expectancy from the user. Time is divided in to long term and short term according to the targets of the company overall strategy Taylor (2005). A long term view of HRP is important to guarantee the firm is provided with skill that over periods are improved upon.
Which can be summed up as what kind of people is needed, over how long the period, the amount of people employed already, possibility of using sources from within to meet any setback, how supply on the outside can be traced, the sort of alters experienced, the involvement in which supply can be familiarised and affects human resources. When the condition is met and scrutinised at subsequently HRP can on the whole center on the four most significant actions. These are as follows Haines and Bandt (2002). 1. To look at existing HR circumstances 2. Predicting future consumer command 3.
Observe the outer employment market 4. Forecasting supply Human Resource Planning is a resourcing action, thus giving rise to the fundamental demand for people. Data gained from the HRP process provides feedback that makes other business plans redundant and in some cases in need of change. A model shows the consequence of HRP, and focus on its qualitative areas. HRP obviously is not only about figures. Plans for training, promotion, productivity and redeployment all highlight the need of finding the best suited employees in the right role Taylor (2005). Scottish Power HR Planning
Scottish Power relies on HR Planning in assisting with the gaining the best employees, with the best location and at the correct timing. It also assesses the number of people needed, to ensure the company successfully operates and at the highest level. The company requires extensively skilled people to carry out the role. Skills are required for many roles so development opportunities are incorporated in to plans Armstrong (2006). Scottish Power is in a changing industry, and understands the importance of recruiting and training those that can do the new jobs.
It gives employees the chance to enhance their skills and prospects for a future in the company. Also, it helps Scottish Power in retaining the best of employees, better work environment and growth in the industry Times (2012). Scottish Power have set programs against a time-frame some lasting 2 years and others extending to 4 years. A range of employment programs are available from apprenticeships to a graduate level. All which depending entirely on the skills and expertise of the employee. This will allocate where most suitable and adopted to fit personal, aims and needs of business.
Whilst, identifying and readjusting any setbacks for employment Times (2012). Tesco HR Planning Tesco also understands the importance and background of HR Planning. It helps with knowing what the organisation requires for people, in relation to the size, location and knowledge. This in return provides Tesco in planning how to meet those requirements through recruitment and training. Tesco are fully aware that forecasting future needs will elevate the company’s growth. From this opens up positions in Tesco, thus frequent recruiting is carried out.
It also helps with training existing employees, set them more responsibility, and meet skill shortages. New jobs and vacancies are created because existing employees may resign, be promoted or retire. Also, the development in technology and changes to the structure results in new jobs being set-up Times (2012). Tesco make use of HR Planning table is created, to determine potential demand for new employees. Tesco are open to managerial and non-managerial positions, available for graduates, apprentices, managers and school leavers.
HR plans are processed yearly, reviews are made quarterly, providing ample chance to keep on top of staff levels and hire where necessary. This gives Tesco more time and ease, coincided with the demands for employees and provides Tesco to accomplish the company’s objectives. Recruitment needs are in line with budgets. Fiver year plans are less detailed but show readiness to deal with any problems Times (2012). Tesco aims to fill vacancies mainly from within, showing the need to motivate staff to progress. Tesco engages in “Talent Planning” and gives incentive to employees to rise up the organisation.
From a yearly reward scheme, employees can apply for higher paying jobs. Employees are given the opportunity to show what they would like to improve. Details on the skills, competencies and attitudes for the role is identified, the type of training needed and the time-frame in preparing for the job. All of which assists Tesco to tick off the companies targets, employees to be at their best and path for a career. Future planning is very important as Tesco is evolving; new roles are being made all the time as are roles to help with filling the new roles in new departments Times (2012). ________________________________________________________________________________ 2. 2 Compare Recruitment and Selection Process of (Tesco and Scottish Power) Recruitment into Scottish Power is similar to Tesco. Both are aiming to search for suitable candidate and use a range of techniques. In both Firms, candidates must be able to show from the application their motivation and competency. Both firms screen CV’s for positive personal qualities, trying to find those who try to achieve high standards at all times. Communication and peer influence is very important when firms try to meet aims and objectives Dale (2003).
Scottish Power have provided a website giving detailed information about the company and the careers available, it makes it simple to viewers to download those details and application form for the two programs Modern Apprenticeships and Graduate Programs. It states the minimum requirements for qualification and experience of the candidate. With the help of schools and universities they provide Scottish Power careers to be shared, The literature will detail the wage and salary, what to gain after employment such as the level of qualification, the left of time for training.
In order for a seeking employee to apply for Scottish Power will have to file an online application form Dale (2003). Tesco is similar the company use internal talent plan to fill the gap in the workforce.. This process identifies the existing employees for promotion. However, if Tesco cannot find a suitable person through either the talent plan or simply developing on the internal management development program. Other options will have to be considered, for Tesco to overcome this and save time in advertisement, an approach of local notice for two weeks is placed.
In addition, if Tesco was to advertised externally it would do so through Tesco direct internet site wwww. Tesco-careers. com or other possible vacancy board in local stores. Applications can make like Scottish Power via the internet for managerial position Dale (2003). Structure Scottish Power has created a competency framework, setting out behaviors required for job roles. The 3 important competencies reflecting key skills are: BPP (2010). * Planning for the future * Delivering for the customer * Working with others.
Basically, Scottish Power need to know how adaptable the employee is and aims how customer orientated and decisive you are and how well you can communicate, be a leader and build relationships. This is similar for Tesco; they too focus on customer service and position consumers at the top of its organisational structure. Tesco establishes a 6 tier work level in the organisation and a 7 part key skills framework to fill these roles Times 100 (2012). Job specification and Person speciation Scottish Power and Tesco sets out skill requirement in two documents.
The person specification and the Job specification, together, have enough data to attract the perfect people. Candidates can match their skills and qualifications to what is asked for. It is also a way to check applicants with the correct skill are selected. There are a number of various tests to make sure candidates are suited to the role on offer. Scottish Power identifies talented individuals from in most cases a business or engineering background. The selection process allows potential candidates various ways to present themselves in the best light.
Tesco follow specific employment law and regulations in choosing vacancy applicants, such as discrimination and equality laws Times 100 (2012). Assessment Centers Scottish Power ask applicants to go to an assessment center, where applicants undertake practical and written tests, a group exercise, a presentation, and psychometric tests. An interview is then done to make sure the applicant is competent, followed by a medical to check fitness levels. At Tesco assessment takes place in store with a manager.
Applicants are put through team working activities or problem solving exercises based on examples they may have to deal with at work. Candidates then have an interview. Line managers take part in the interview to assess if the candidate fits the job criteria Cole (2004). Summary of Task 1 and 2 Personnel management places emphasis on bureaucratic control of an organization closely monitored. However, HRM brings forth any issues of an employee, and molds that into the organisations objectives. It is deemed that if it is not right for the person it cannot be right for the rganization Mckeena and Beech (2002). Human resource management overlooks the whole process of recruitment, selection, training, rules and regulations, dismissals and set conducts for employees and line-manager. Human resource management suggests and line-manager upholds what is said Mckeena and Beech (2002). Human resource managers are most concerned with the rights of a person, to treat them fairly and equally at the workplace, not to be discriminated on the grounds of sex, race or disability, health and safety and correct wages Haines and Bandt (2002).
Valuable HRP tends to be focused with people deployment on the expertise and capabilities they have, a phrase best known to refer ‘quality not quantity’. It is beneficial for the organisation to plan for answering crucial points, such as which categories of staff are available, numbers in these categories, age and sex mix in categories, skills and qualifications, amount of staff to consider for promotion and redeployment, and capability of finding categorically specified employees Haines and Bandt (2002)
Both Scottish Power and Tesco have set precisely how to attract suitable candidates using a range of methods either by online application or forms, internal or external members, a framework or structure with details and background information. To find the right person are the right time, and suit the objective of the company. Assessment centres are used to measure the employees ability, observational techniques for either practical or professional skills BPP (2010). _________________________________________________________________________________
TASK 3 3. 1 Reward Systems linked with Motivational Theories (Marks and Spencer’s) Rewards Systems, Bratton and Gold definition of rewards, that it “refers to all of the monetary, non-monetary and psychological payments that an organisation provides for its employees in exchange for work they perform” cited by BPP(2010: 133) Motivation is the sense of desiring or wanting to succeed, being swayed on by intrinsic and extrinsic factors, and to get involved in a constant urging for development BPP (2010).
Bearing in mind these two main factors, this assignment will give light to the impact in which reward systems play a role in employee’s motivation. This assignment will be referencing motivational theories and case study of Marks and Spencer’s. In any organisation, to work correctly it would need employees who are motivated, diverse and complies with the objectives of the organisation, for growth and efficiency. Marks and Spencer’s recognise this, and return provides support to its employees for different roles and positions from assistants to managers, warehouse to office employees.
The incentives package has been improved to assist in gaining, motivating and keeping the correct employees and involves giving extra benefits from health and performance linked rewards to special offers and discounts Marks and Spencer (2013). Herzberg Theory Herzberg suggested that satisfier’s such as achievement and recognition motivate employees rather than hygiene factors such as pay and working conditions BPP (2010:136). In the needs structure pay is not included; however it can help, fund for other needs and show the worth of the staff.
Whilst, allowing comparisons with peers. Although, pay is just another ‘hygiene factor’ but it can end up as a de-motivator or abused BPP (2010). The company make use of Herzberg theory, in the send that Marks and Spencer’s take good care of their staff by offering a substantial wage, comfortable work environment and give out sick payments and pension plans, also allow employees to take on more roles and give them that feel or worthiness, push them to do better and motivating them as well Marks and Spencer’s (2013). Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs Theory
This suggested that needs are ordered and diverse, where one employee may need psychological motivation to be recognised for performance no matter the reward whereas another may have a core need for simply food and survival, both have individual need and may be eligible for the same reward yet one may work harder as his needs are met more head on. Though the need for one is less dramatic than the other his motivation is affected and so is his performance. From this, it is clear that there are discrepancies between what is more admirable as motivating and what is offered Mckeena and Beech (2002).
Once simplistic needs are consumed such as income, security and social integration are met, the employees aim for higher needs such as self-acknowledgement, value and self-realisation. Hence, if simple needs are not completed, and the organisation does not provide development, annual meetings or bonuses, the employee would possibly perceive these rewards have more results in motivation more motivating Mckeena and Beech (2002). The reward from work is highly focused in the need ideology.
The idea of self-acknowledgement and the urge to improve employees work effort, gives strength to the notion that a higher level of responsibility at work will increase motivation. Evidently, motivation will be lifted by establishing a relationship between staff and manager in decision making Robbins and DeCenzo (2008). Marks and Spencer’s use Maslow hierarchy of needs by establishing employees according to their simple and security needs stage, the focus in on giving employees a sense of achievement by working towards the higher stages of need such as acknowledgment, social or esteem requirements BPP (2010).
Marks and Spencer’s set a competitive standard of pay and performance reward to identify personal success. A yearly bonus package is offered to all employees at all levels, related to group and business performance. Whist, this may be a motivating notice it is only aimed at a small amount of people not aimed at those at the lower end of the company Marks and Spencer (2013). However, a positive outcome to that is those employees at the lower end can work toward this and in the future see themselves at that level.
Hence, Marks and Spencer’s frequently train and develop its staff in order to ensure motivation is existing. This theory is used to assist employees to create targets and aim to achieve them, it influences and gives them a sense of knowledge, that they are progressing and claim rewards for their efforts Marks and Spencer (2013). McGregors Motivational Theory McGregor’s identified that employees are either simple not motivated, no ambition or incentive to work, dislike working, need to be monitored and prompted to make results.
While, others are more comfortable at work, self-determination, unique and generally love working, always going for more responsibility, challenges, they feel work is vital Robbins (1994). Marks and Spencer’s have adopted the idea of McGregor’s theory by ensuring it keeps honest and trustworthy managers, so staff are maintained and given a helping hand, aim to succeed and provide managers with extra payments to keep them also motivated. Marks and Spencer’s do not forget about those who are under-performing, rather than remove them they are motivated more so they can also reap the rewards and complete their targets.
In practice M & S have accepted this and created a performance linked pay recently, staff that are determined and work at their best will get a better salary so that others look towards this and work just as the same to get their extra payments Marks and Spencer’s (2013). Total Rewards Paying an employee for his performance can work on some levels but not in others and a broad based payment may be more appropriate. It should be noted that it is just one of many forms of reward and if used it can only be fully valued by having more included Gross (1994).
Marks and Spencer’s achieved this by including a range of rewards (total rewards), this approach notices that a combination of all rewards is more appreciated in motivating staff. Marks and Spencer’s offers a company car, loans, pension, health services, recognition, lifestyle break and much more. In the long run is a valuable benefit is offered to employees Marks and Spencer’s (2013). People are simply diverse, while some want to achieve a promotion others want acknowledgement. The key is to balance strategy so that rewards are attainable, punctual and announced so as to motivate the workforce Gross (1994).
If the organisation nurtures employees through the use of development and further training, higher motivation levels in employees will be noticed, and employees will gain more abilities and job fulfilment BPP (2010). _________________________________________________________________________________ 3. 2 Job Evaluation of Tesco Job evaluation is labelled as “the process used at the level of a company or industry to determine the relationship between jobs and to establish a systematic structure of wages rates for those jobs” fairy and justifiable Mckeena and Beech (2002:190).
Job evaluation is based on the principle that all jobs within in an organisation can be ranked in order of importance and relation to other jobs within the hierarchy of the company. Thus, connected to bands of pay, a job role can be point rated. It can be either non-analytically or analytically obtaining information Cole (2004). The jobs are analysed according to key criteria such as level of required knowledge, level of responsibility and social skills. Points are awarded to each criterion relative to the role and the total job value is found by the sum of all the points.
The value of any other job is perceived by comparison to the nearest bench-mark job and the payment is either given or negotiable according to the nearest level Cole (2004). Systems such as this can be complex so unique differences and importance of roles are clearly defined and reflected showing the objectivity, rationality and equity of the points. In order to less complicate a system and allow for flexibility to adapt an organisation is better off having less job titles and roles which are as general as possible. This in turn allows for more performance appraisal and variable salary bands between bench mark positions.
This method would merge the borders of a highly categorized job evaluation system Dale (2003). The simplification of grading roles in an organisation is the gateway to a unified pay scheme where most of the workforce is under a particular salary structure which can also mean the difference between skilled and technical labour groups is blurred. Knowledge and skills may not be rewarded as they are irrelevant to the task at hand. The main two reasons for introducing this method of a unified pay scheme are it allows flexibility and simplicity Dale (2003).
In the case of Tesco, the company tends to make use of a non-analytic job evaluation scheme. In particular the use of job classification to reward and pay staff. All the job roles in Tesco is graded upon, and relates to the foundations of the job specification. The job specification consists of abilities, strengths and actual experience needed for a certain position. The amount of responsibility held by a employee will be referenced according to the specific job take for instance a customer advisors required to check stock, help consumers and have no say in business matters.
In comparison, to formal and professional roles such as a regional manager who is given the authority to commence the business in store,. This is precisely showing that Tesco do use a job specification scheme for job evaluation and structured it for pay and reward measures Times 100 (2012). 3. 3 Monitoring Performance of Marks and Spencer’s Agreeing appropriate objectives and making effective use of appraisals can improve performance and result in better working environment and more focused employees. It is important to establish clear, defined objectives and help employees to focus on specific tasks and company goals.
A structured appraisal system can help employees feel that their good work is recognised and that they are valued. It can also provide the opportunity to discuss any weaknesses or problems they may have, and to come up with solutions. Gathering data from appraisal meetings gives the company the opportunity in identifying what of training and development is required and how to improve itself Cole (2004). The methods used to monitor an employee can be outlined by the evaluation of the different techniques used for appraisal. These techniques allow management to monitor how well an employee is performing Cole (2004).
The feedback is important to let employees see how they have performed individually against targets or to allow them to have a target set to be met in the future allowing appraisal to take place for success and encouragement to succeed. The results must show that what is monitored is specific, measurable, achievable, realistic, and time-constrained SMART) Loosemore (2005). Marks and Spencer’s organisational approach for monitoring performance is accumulated by appraisal schemes taken upon every so often. This allows a consultation between managers and employees in terms of performance.
Whether there are concerns in progress, how to improve, insight in the company and feedback for development. From this a review strategy is formed to analysis the overall productivity, and shows the employee whether they have reached their aims from the date of the meeting. Take for instance, a delivery employee main aim was to deliver a set amount of goods at a given time; the review strategy will show the results. Hence, referred to as results-based systems Gross (1994). Marks and Spencer’s can identify targets are being achieved and ensure employees are performing well.
If this cannot be reached, Marks and Spencer’s will decide on what measures to change the results, such as development and training programmes for staff members. Marks and Spencer’s frequently take on appraisal, which helps in making changes beforehand Marks and Spencer’s’ (2013). _________________________________________________________________________________ TASK 4 4. 1 Reasons for cessation of employment The reasons for cessation of employment can vary from dismissal to a termination of employment, which may involve resignation, retirement or the contract has been terminated.
It can also be down to redundancy, redeployment or retraining, or worse breach of contract TUC (2008). Both Tesco and Marks & Spencer’s, states clearly the reasons for cessation of employment in the official handbook for employees, however both give similar reasons as to termination, with relevant legal requirements are followed. By performance cessation in employment can occur if there is reasonable knowledge that the employee is lacking in performance less than what is expected in the organization. However, only if numerous attempts of training, development and performance management has been carried out, fairly and justifiable BPP (2010).
Employees who are employed for short-term during holidays, those employees are exactly that temporary and when the time comes the employer can terminate the contract and decide not to renew the contract. Since, this type of employment is on a fixed-term, changes do not have to occur TUC (2008). However, not all cases flow so smoothly it could also mean that the job is no longer required giving way for redundancy. Redundancy can also occur if the organisation is failing in some ways that the only option available is cutting the size of the workforce, or that the organisation has gone into administration TUC (2008).
In addition, it comes a time when an employee reaches the retirement stages, once this stage is reached, the decision is entirely based on whether the organisation retains the employee and re-evaluate their psychical and physiological status, as well as opinions in which the employee will like to put forward TUC (2008). Redeployment and Re-training organisations can opt for shifting also referred to as ‘redeployment’ and issue aims for ‘retraining’. In particular positions are made available; hence employees are needed to fill any gaps.
This gives an opportunity for other employees the chance to be promoted. Employees that lack knowledge or skills required and for financial reasons, are moved or to retrain TUC (2008). This gives the employee assurance and to sustain the security of job. Mutual Agreement: simple and more frequent reason for cessation in employment, arises when “both parties can agree that they are entitled to terminate the contract at any time say in the event of ‘irreconcilable differences” BPP (2010:198).
By Notice: An organization can decide to dismiss an employee by giving a notice, which is the time frame in which the employee should expect to be dismissed TUC (2008). Otherwise, if the employee is the one that feels challenged, situations have elevated to difficulty or even a career change, giving no other option but to leave (resignation). Take for instance a slight alteration in the job role, contract without any knowledge and feel duped. The prior is referred to as a ‘constructive dismissal’TUC (2008). It is important to understand that dismissal do not always go according the way intended.
Some fall into the category of ’wrongful or unfair dismissal’. Wrongful dismissal is when there is a breach in the contract of employment or opposes against the requirements in the contract Cole (2004). A fair dismissal can arises due to factors from results of an evaluation made against the employee and showed the abilities and actual qualifications they hold are not suitably matched. Not to say, that some employees do not perform the job well, it is quite the contrary that employees over-perform at times and eventually it is recognisable that they over qualify TUC (2008).
Breach of Contract: Although, in some cases a termination of a contract can be issued to the employee without any notice given. Take for instance an employee has acted on the grounds of misconduct such as discrimination in any form against colleagues, action of theft or deemed to be violent can lead to strict measures, mainly ordering an immediate removal of that individual. Another grave part for reasons on cessation of employment lies in the ability to fulfill the contract due to death or severe illness or legal requirements to explain this better read the following scenario BPP (2010).
Think of a CEO in Marks and Spencer’s, hypothetically speaking has been involved in a court case regarding issues to his work, or whereby concerns are met it is advisable that the employers can terminate employment depending on the extent of the problem, executive are deemed to hold a high position and if unfortunate to be tied with court cases, organisation can take matters into their own hands, to ensure safety or restrictions. Impact of law and regulation It is undoubtedly clear that all employees and employers within an organization such as Tesco or Marks & Spencer’s are obliged under legal equirements to follow the correct methods at the workforce. Failure to do so can lead to cessation of employment at both ends of the parties. Significantly, when it comes to termination of employment, it does not always go as planned or in a voluntarily form. If employees have to leave, it must go alongside protecting their statutory rights and overall aspects in life, fighting off being miss-treated or exploited by the company. Even though, employees are valuable assets and resources they are still ordinary human beings Cole (2004).
This impacts the company greatly, breaches can be dealt with by external agencies one being Health and Safety Executive. However, if further legal advice and action is needed, the employee can refer to the courts and tribunals. These deals with claims linked to rights of employment. It allows appeals to be made against a decision for both parties involved Cole (2004). 4. 2 Employment exit procedures for Tesco and Marks and Spencer’s Tesco and Marks & Spencer’s will be used to explain the way it deals with employment exit procedures. Both companies first attempt to resolve the issue before the employee makes a final decision.
However, if this method of retaining the employee fails and the employee is adamant to leave, then, by all means will the two organisations, set-up an exit interview one with the store manager and second one with the personal manager Times 100 and Marks and Spencer‘s (2012). These interviews are quite important; it helps the companies as well as the employee. It provides information in background to why the employee is actually leaving? It helps with a further understanding of the work levels; whether stress is linked and ensures others future employees do not experience those problems or even pass on expertise and experience BPP (2010).
For the employee, this interview gives it the only opportunity to obtain a reference letter for the next employment and essential documents. Discuss any matters and issues, give advice for future career. The employee will also receive a payment in lieu of notice, with additional clearance of shares fully only if there is. From this, the employee is then expected to return all property owned by the companies such as the uniform, special equipment and name badge provided at the start of the employment. The final process will be arranging any pension schemes if the employee is eligible, then it can be issued BPP (2010).
Equally, the companies will initially see whether there is a way to keep those employees wishing to leave, will attempt to give other options or change their decision by offering more benefits Times 100 and Marks and Spencer‘s (2013). Summary of Task 3 and 4 Motivational theories can be used as a tool to help employees stay motivated. The higher the reward the higher the motivation and levels of performance. The workforce needs to be recognised not only as groups rather individuals within a group Robbins and Decenzo (2008). Job evaluation covers the position of job, matches jobs correctly and fairly.
It can be in the form a calculative or narrative analysis. It helps base a format for pay structure and job grading Cole (2004). Monitoring performance should be carried out regularly and in privacy. Establish targets and set aims, if not completed then training and development should be considers Mckeena and Beech (2002). There must be no discrimination or unfair treatment, if there is breach then third-parties can resolve or take legal action to the employment tribunals TUC (2008). The exit procedures by Tesco and Marks & Spencer’s sounds like a reasonable and correctly mannered process, standard to many organisations.
Self-evaluation I did not comprehend the precise difference between personal management and human resource management; neither could I differentiate between line-managers role and human resources. To me sounded all the same. The assignment was quite difficult and felt like I did not do so well. Throughout the assignment I did not understand fully well what was expected, I tended to side-track and answer the questions entirely different. That is why I was left with more words than asked for. I over-explained and did not fully express the answers. I am not pleased with my efforts, more time was spent on researching.
Human resources is quite broad and large topic to really understand. Eventually, accepted defeat and attempted to salvage the assignment, I kept on going back to the beginning and cut down words, and placed it at the end as appendix. I broke down the questions, and to the best of my ability continued the assignment. However, what I did learn from this assignment is how human resource managers recruits, selects employees. Also by having a range of rewards systems can lead to motivation. My strengths were writing about motivational theories, I learn that of Herzberg, Mayo and the expectancy theory.
I have experience at work and found it easier to relate to, I was not so sure what the best practice for exit procedures was though. For future reference I would suggest to myself that I attended more often, extra reading after class and complete tasks before the deadline. Since, I cant get my vision for the assignment instantly, I can write in presentation format to minimise my words and tables. As much as the lecturer has tried numerous times to explain, I asked many questions unfortunately still did not click. I realised I am much slower in my writing skills than I thought and need to improve so this does not occur
Overall, I am pleased with HRM and will work on my weaknesses as it is my chosen subject and field in pursuing. _________________________________________________________________________________ APPENDIX SECTION Appendix 1- Differences of Human Resource Management and Personal Management Kandula (2003:44) [pic] [pic] Appendix 2 Motivation and Rewards David Gross (1994) [pic][pic] _______________________________________________________________ List of References Sources from Books: * Amos et al. (2008),“Human Resource Management”, 3rd Edition, Juta and Co Ltd: Cape Town. Armstrong. M. , (2006),“A Handbook of Human Resource Management Practice”,10th Edition, Kogan Page: London. * Aswathappa. ,(2005),“Human Resource and Personnel Management”, Tata McGraw- Hill Publishing Limited: New Delhi. * Boddy, D. ,(2008),“Management- An Introduction’, 4th Edition, Pearson Education Limited: Essex. * BPP. ,(2010),“Business Essentials- Supporting HND/HNC and Foundation degrees- Human Resources Management”, BPP Learning Media: London. * Butel et al. ,(1998),“An Active Learning Approach-Business Functions”, Blackwell publishers ltd: Oxford . Cole,G. A. ,(2004),“Management Theory and Practice”, 6th Edition, Thomson Learning: London. * Dale. M. ,(2003),“A Managers Guide-Recruitment and Selection”,2nd Edition, Kogan Page Limited: London. * Gross. D. ,(1994),“Principles of Human Resource Management”, Routledge: London. * Haines, S. G and Bandt, A. ,(2002),“Successful Strategic Human Resource Planning”, Systems Thinking Press: California, Australia. * Kandula, S. R. ,(2003),“Human Resource Practice- With 300 Models, Techniques and Tools”, Prentice Hall: New Delhi. * Kurana et al. (2009),“Human Resource Management” , India Enterprises: New Delhi. * Loosemore. M et al (2003) “Human Resource Management in construction projects- strategic and operational approaches, Spoon Press: London. * Lundy. O and Cowling. A. ,(1996), Strategic Human Resource Management, Routledge:London. * Mckenna, E and Beech, N. ,(2004),“Human Resource Management- A Concise Analysis”, Pearson Education Limited: Essex. * Reddy. R. J. ,(2004),“Personnel Management”, APH Publishing: New Delhi. * Roberts. G. ,(1997),“Recruitment and Selection- A Competency Approach”, Cromwell press: Wiltshire. Robbins, S. P. ,(1994),“Management”, 4th edition, Prentice Halls International: London. * Robbins, S. P, and DeCenzo, D. A. ,(2008),“Fundamentals of Management-Essential Concepts and Applications”, 6th Edition, Pearson Prentice Hall: New Jersey. * Stredwick. J. ,(2005),“An Introduction- Human Resource Management”, 2nd Edition, Elsevier Limited: Oxford. * Taylor, S. ,(2005),“People Resourcing”, 3rd Edition, Chartered Institute of Personnel and Development: London * TUC. G. ,(2008),“Your Rights at work”, 3rd Edition, Kogan Page: London. * Turner, P. (2002),“Developing Practice- Human Resource Forecasting and Planning, The Cromwell Press: Wiltshire. Source from Internet: * ACAS. ,2012. “Promoting Employment Relations and HR Excellence” [Online]. Available at: [Accessed on: 02 October 2012]. * Tesco. ,2013. “Corporation Code of Conduct” Tesco Corporation [Online] Available at; [Accessed on:[Accessed on: 12 January 2013]. * Times 100. ,2012. “Scottish Power Recruitment and Selection in the energy industry” Business Case Studies [Online] Available at [Accessed on : 29 October 2012]. * Times 100. ,2012. Tesco Recruitment and Selection Introduction- A Tesco Case Study” Business Case Studies Online] Available at: [Accessed on: 29 October 2012]. * Times 100. ,2013. “Motivational Theory in Practice at Tesco” Business Case Studies Online], Available at: : [Accessed on:5 January 2013]. * Marks and Spencers. ,2013. “M Corporate Home-Careers, About Us-Our Diversity” [Online] Available at [Accessed on: 17 January 2013]. Appendix for any part in the task which was removed Task 1 Human Resource Management (HRM) can be looked at as a management method that focuses on people and uses them as their main resource.
In other words without people there would be no use for HRM. All the more reason why it concentrates on communication with employees to become more involved and keep them updated with the organisation plans and practices, trying to increase their sense of obligation and involvement with the organisation Butel et al (1998). This method is used to ensure these systems are developed, maintained and established in order to go forth with the process of employing people. In line with that, these techniques continue throughout the full length of a persons’ employment with the organisation.
Set off with the system of entry into recruitment and selection. This is followed by the management of the relationship between organisation and employee such as incentives and bonuses, dealing with personal problems and personal improvement. This is finalised by the exit procedure of the relationship which is carried out by leaving, being dismissed, having to retire or being made redundant. This process of management is made strong by the continuous necessity to make right the rate of, and equivalent standards of opportunity McKenna and Beech (2008).
Armstrong explained from the use of Guest and King 2007 research that better human resources depended not so much on better procedures but better implication and ownership off by line-manager” It is evident that line managers in a wide range of workforces formulate what was deemed to be a function of Human Resource is now common in line manager’s functions; However it is yet to be seen if there is more to HRM than only a new and bright way of talking about it. ———————————————————————————————————————————
Task 1. 2 Human Resource Management Recruitment: The most appropriate means of recruitment (newspapers adverts, employment agency or job centre) is specified with the intention of attracting suitable applications. Training:& Development: Types of training vary from basic entry level instruction to educational and training courses provided by facilities outside of the organization. Selection: done by many different ways, application form, interviews, tests and assessment centres. Line Managers:
To distinction of line-manager is seen as particular managers which a person hires or groups specifically to report and consult to a senior manager for those staff or member. Furthermore a line managers roles is to places jobs where and when necessary, guiding new staff members, training at work, taking control on discipline and grievances. implementing nd understanding the workforce, equal opportunities, provide appraisals, issues on legality, termination of employment and ethics are dealt with, limit and balance cost of labour and t’s security and controls. The line-manager ought to draw out a job description which comprises of vital information highlighting the job, it may include the title, salary, level of job, who to report to, structure and reasons, pillars, limitations, and allocation of the job description is laid out in a formal document compromising of the whole analysis of the job to make not to and is a key information piece, to help line-manager to provide results.
Personal specification which is a conclusion of the expertise, abilities and personal characteristic needed from a candidate, to perform the job to match the level of performance accepted. This by far is a very important part of the process in recruitment, since it sets down a limit by which candidates whilst in a interview can be tested. Two recognised classifications for personnel requirements are the seven point plan Roger and the Five Point Plan Fraser, kindly shown by (Cole 2004). It can be seen that it is similarly in some features between the two set of classifications.
Ideally the seven point plan is more frequently uses, and some organisations often shape their own specifications on to it. Furthermore a line managers roles is to places jobs where and when necessary, guiding new staff members, training at work, taking control on discipline and grievances. implementing nd understanding the workforce, equal opportunities, provide appraisals, issues on legality, termination of employment and ethics are dealt with, limit and balance cost of labour and it’s security and controls BPP (2010).
Legal and regulatory The written formality of employment, the obligation to pay the minimum wage, the right to a time limit on notices, payment for redundancy, not to be miss-treated, the measures of maternity rights for women staff, appropriate health safety and welfare measure and also the right to not to be unfairly discriminated at work on grounds of sex, race and disability, Managers have to discriminate between employees when deciding which person should be offered promotion or redeployed Cole (2004).
Equal Opportunity was introduced in 2010 to root out and eradicate discrimination, harassment based on gender, bullying and its origins, and to encourage and accommodate for progression in respects of equality. Discrimination against a person based on psychical characteristics is against the law under the act and also against the law to harass a person sexually or oppress them from expressing their rights, to issue a complaint, assisting someone to make that claim or decline them from acting in accordance with the equal opportunity act Cole (2004).
Employment Legislation was set up in order for employers and employee to follow the correct procedures and rights for them in the work environment. The acts of Employment Relations 1999 and 20003 gave rights to employees on the basis of national minimum wage, terms and conditions had to be formally written, to look after employees against unfair dismissal’s or maternity rights and payments for redundancy. Employment legislation protects employees and the company, making the workforce much more harmonious.
A few of what is known as ‘protected characteristics’ are gender, relationship status, pregnancy and maternity notice, sexual orientation, age, disability, race, ethnicity, religion or belief can not be used against or exploited towards employees Malik (2003). However, cited by Cole (2004:415) “they may only do so legally on the individual’s performance or ability. It is crucial for managers at any position of responsibility to fully capture the legal fundamentals that surround the working environment.
Managers who lack sufficient information or guidelines can make reference to precise guide’s t legislation, which is ever changing from secondary data, government bodies such as ACAS (Advisory Conciliation and Arbitration Service) Acas (2001-2009). The four main sources for employment law comprise of common law, statute law, case law and the European Community law Stredwick (2005). ———————————————————————————————————————— Task 2 2 . 1 HRM planning and stages
The definition provided by Cole 2004:169 “a rational approach to the effective recruitment, retention and deployment of people within an organisation, including, when necessary, arrangements for dismissing staff. In respect of this it can be said threat HRP deals with the trance of movement of people by away and usually out of the workforce. It is then considered to be a simple method of figures. Once a firm knows the numbers available to fill its positions, it can organise plans to meet the criteria. Humans are a volatile resource so a flexible plan is better.
Many HR plans p 5 years allowing forecasts to be undertaken.. The meeting of staff needs involves recruiting; adding to the firm, new ideas to replace, raise trainees/apprentices, finding trained experienced people, part-timers and contract employee calculation, steps to follow to sell the firms job roles to students, the use of recruitment agents and any changes for the better of selection methods Turner (2002). Training and development concentrates on in-house or new staff. The training is done in-house or by external teaching.
The types of training required for new employees and current employees. A manager decides the job description and requirement criteria of employees to fill that role effectively and the type of training it will take for one to do the job Turner (2002). Tesco is able to meet business objectives and employees can meet personal and career objective. In the final stage of HRP cycle is a review, a shared responsibility of all managers Turner (2002). Checking of b
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