Jail and Prison CJA 234 Jails and prisons from the outside perspective seem to have the same meaning. Although jails and prisons are a part of the criminal justice system correctional system, the fact is jails and prisons are different. The jail system is a short-term facility where inmates are confined until their trial date. State and Federal prisons are long-term facilities where inmates are confined after being convicted. The roles and functions of jails throughout history set the standards for jail. An inmate is taken after they have been arrested for committing a crime.
Jail is a short-term location for inmates who are awaiting trial or sentencing. Inmates sentenced to twelve months or less serve their time in jail. Jails are owned and operated by the states local government or the sheriff’s office. “The first jails were created in England and they were called gaol” (Seiter, 2011, p. 72). Early jails had terrible conditions such as filth, no medical care, and poor food. There were times when large numbers of inmates were contained in one large room. “Jails were used to house displaced persons, the poor, and the mentally ill because of the vagrancy problems during he fourteenth and eighteen centuries” (Seiter, 2011, p. 72). In 1773, John Howard was the sheriff of Bedfordshire. During his inspection of the local jail John was surprised by the horrible conditions. To find examples of prisons that could be replicated in England, John Howard visited other European countries. John Howard along with members of the English House of Commons drafted the Penitentiary Act of 1779. A reformatory regime that required inmates to be confined in cells unless they were working in common rooms, secure and sanitary, systematic inspections, nd abolition of fees were the four requirements created from this act for English prisons and jails. Jails have an important role in corrections; jails are also known as correctional centers. The purpose of jail is confine criminals to punish them for their wrongdoings. Criminals must be held accountable for their own actions, the criminal’s punishment is determined after conviction. The theory for incarceration is that if criminals are imprisoned they will not commit crimes. Being incarcerated gives inmates the opportunity to evaluate their actions to make wiser decisions.
State prisons are operated by the state; state prisons are prisons that confine inmates that have committed state crimes or crimes committed in that state. Every state has its own penal code. When an inmate is serving more than one year they are contained in a state prison. Robbery and sex crimes are examples of state crimes. Federal prisons are prisons that confine inmates that have committed federal crimes. Federal prisons are operated by the Federal Bureau of Prisons. The Bureau of Justice Statistics states inmates confined to federal prisons are the legal authority f the federal government. Jails and prisons classify inmates by security levels. It is essential for each inmate to be assessed and classified into the appropriate correctional setting. If prisoners were held in a prison without concern for classification there would be a several concerns. Jails, state prisons, and federal prisons purpose is to confine and rehabilitate criminals. Institutional misconduct, prison violence, over crowdedness, and prison escapes are a few concerns. Inmates are separated by the seriousness of the crime committed, previous records, and violence history.
Security levels are physical features that jails, state prisons, and federal prison have in place to control the behavior of inmates and prevent them from escaping. Jails have security levels that inmates are evaluated and confined to. The security levels are the basic security levels. The type of security in a jail is at the jails discretion. The Cook County Sheriff’s office categorized by divisions. There are different types of jails and prisons. Each security level has rules and restrictions, they have some similarities but, they are different. The igher the security level the more restrictions are in place. In state prisons inmates are classified by security levels. The security level is determined by each state. Inmates are categorized by the type of problems they have and their violence level. The common levels of security for state prisons are low, medium, high, and maximum security. States do not categorize the security levels with the same name even though the definitions are the same. Jails, state prisons, and federal prisons have the same theory, which is protecting the public by ensuring the accused and convicted are detained.
There are five security levels in the federal prisons system: minimum, low, medium, high, and administrative. According to the Federal of Bureau of Prisons website the highest percentage of inmates is in low security. The different security levels are necessary to confine the offenders appropriately. The minimum security institutions are known as Federal Prison Camp (FPCs). The FPC’s have limited perimeter fencing. The low security institutions are known as Federal Correctional Institutions (FCIs). The FCI’s have double-fenced perimeters. The medium security
FCI’s have double-fenced perimeters with electronic detection systems. The high security institutions are known as the United States Penitentiaries (USPs). The USPs are highly secured with walls or reinforced fences. Jails and prisons are places where inmates are incarcerated to become rehabilitated. There are similarities and differences between jail, state prison, and federal prison, the main difference in the amenities and programs. Jails are locally operated, state prisons are operated by the state, and federal prisons are operated by the federal government. The difference in jail, state, and federal rison is how defendants serve their time. Defendants that are convicted of state crimes serve their time in state prison, defendants that are convicted of federal crimes serve their time in federal prison. Defendants that are convicted of minor crimes and sentenced to two years or less serve their time in a jail. Because jails are considered to be short-term, state prisons and federal prisons offer training and programs that jails do not offer. A county jail may offer work release programs. State and federal prions also offer work release programs, they also may have alfway houses services or vocational training. The jail and prions system has the tools necessary to ensure offenders will become positive productive members of society. The prison population has increased. The factors that influence the growth in jails, state prisons, and federal prisons are economic conditions, sentencing laws, crime rates, and offenders returning to prison. Jails and prisons are different, each facility have its own problems. The common goal between jail and prions is serving and protecting the community and helping the convicts reenter society as positive productive members.
References Bureau of Justice Statistics. Office of justice programs. Retrieved from http://bjs. ojp. usdoj. gov/index. cfm? ty=tp&tid=133 Cook county Sheriff website. Retrieved from http://www. cookcountysheriff. org/doc/doc_DivisionsOfJail. html Federal Bureau of Prisons. An agency of the U. S. Department of Justice. Retrieved from http://www. bop. gov/about/facts. jsp. http://www. bop. gov/locations/institutions/index. jsp Seiter, R. (2011). Corrections: An introduction, Third Edition. Retrieved from The University of Phoenix eBook Collection database.
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