Defining leadership as a process that involves an individual influencing a group of people in order to achieve a common goal, Northouse (2010) identifies the common styles of leadership. Among the recognized styles, coaching is the easiest to identify with, as it calls on the leader to be involved with followers at a personal level. Such involvement creates a good rapport between the leader and the followers, allowing the latter to easily communicate their ideas on how to achieve set goals (Northouse, 2010). However, even though the opinions of the followers are carefully considered, it is the leader who ultimately decides the best way to accomplish these goals. .
The style of leadership chosen by an individual is reflective of their nature. Douglas McGregor pointed out that leadership is dominated by human nature, which can be explained using the X and Y theories. While theory X portrays the average person as lazy, lacking in ambition, and always waiting to be directed, theory Y perceives human beings as active, ambitious, and ready to take responsibilities (Stewart, 2010). Accordingly, although most people would want to identify with theory Y, the truth is that a majority of people are not that self-motivated and need to be prompted into action. This observation makes theory X more realistic than theory Y in the relationship between leaders and followers.
Transformational leadership is a leadership model advanced by Kouze & Posner (2010), who in their first two chapters provide real-life examples of managers whose personalities transformed their organizations. Essentially, Kouze & Posner (2010) perceive leadership as a relationship rather than a position by stating that leadership is not only measured by being in charge of others, but also by being credible. .