Diabetes Mellitus (DM) is a chronic disorder of impaired carbohydrate, protein, and lipid metabolism that is caused by a deficiency of insulin. A deficiency of insulin results in hyperglycemia. Type 1 DM is nearly absolute deficiency of insulin; if insulin is not given, fats are metabolized, resulting in ketoanemia. Type 2 DM is a relative lack of insulin or resistance to the action of insulin; usually insulin is insufficient to stabilize fat and protein metabolism but not deal with carbohydrate metabolism. (Silvestri, 2006, p. 638)
There are a lot of people who are diagnosed with Diabetes Mellitus. Contributing factors to the development of diabetes are hereditary, obesity, sedentary lifestyle, high fat low fiber diets, hypertension and aging. There is no cure for this disease but continuous studies and research have offered effective medical management therefore giving patients options as to which treatment are they willing and capable to maintain. Physicians may advise patients to follow changes in their diet. Incorporate diet into individual client needs, lifestyle, and cultural and socioeconomic patterns.
Exercise will also be included in the dietary adjustments. Physicians may prescribe oral medications and insulin according to patients needs. Clients should always monitor their blood glucose levels before meals, and before, during, and after exercise. This will give client awareness as to how they will deal with their insulin requirements. Insulin therapy should be carefully followed up and referred to a Diabetician. Clients, who can religiously follow administration of medications, maintain proper diet and exercise may lessen the complications of the disease or the treatment itself.
Health is a priority so it is important to set appointments for annual physical exam. In this way we are aware of our medical status and we can prevent illnesses, if there is, from being grave. If in case diagnosed with DM or any disease, regular checkups must be done. And most importantly, one should be well educated regarding the disease and its treatment to avoid any risks that would threaten life. Silvestri L. A. (2006). Saunders Comprehensive Review for the NCLEX-RN Examination. Philippines: Elsevier, Inc.
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