PMS/CSS Everyday Science Compiled by: Engr. Syed Muhammad Umer www. css. theazkp. com [email protected] theazkp. com Ph: +923336042057 It’s just an effort to merge all relevant data of Everyday Science in a single document, which will be used in the preparation of Competitive Examinations like PMS/CSS and other such exams. The primarily source of these information is mainly from internet. PMS/CSS Notes Contents Topic 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. 11. 12. 13. 14. 15. 16. 17. 18. 19. 20. 21. 22. 23. 24. 25. 26. 27. 28.
Nature of Science Contribution of Muslims Scientists Impact of Science on Society Universe Galaxy Solar system Sun Earth Atmosphere Weather Cloud Rain Acid Rain Minerals Rock (Mineral) Mineral Deposit Lava Solar and Lunar Eclipses Day and Night and their variation Energy Sources and Resources of Energy Energy conservation Ceramics Plastics Semiconductors Radio Television Telephones Page No. 3 3 4 5 5 7 7 7 8 9 12 13 14 17 17 19 20 22 23 23 23 24 24 24 25 25 30 30 29. 30. 31. 32. 33. 34. 35. 36. 37. 38. 39. 40. 41. 42. 43. 44. 45. 46. 47. 48. 49. 50. 51. 52. 53. 54. 55. 56. Topic Page No.
Camera 31 Lasers 31 Microscopes 34 Computers 36 Satellites 42 Antibiotics 42 Vaccines 45 Fertilizers 46 Pesticides 47 Microwave ovens 47 Immunization 48 Fingerprinting 49 Infra Red Radiation 50 Greenhouse Effect 50 Antimatter 53 Magma 54 Brain 55 Heart 60 Tissues 68 Epithelial Cell 68 Origin of Modern Humans 68 Pest Control 72 Protein 73 Vertebrate 74 Invertebrate 76 Liver 79 Enzymes 80 Organisms (Common to all living things) 82 2 1. NATURE OF SCIENCE Definition: Science can be defined as study “mainly concerned with the phenomenon of physical universe any or all of natural sciences or biological sciences. Or Science as the “the field of study which attempts to describe and understand the nature of the universe in whole or part. ” Science is the faculty to reason out the how and why of the things as they occur in the phenomenal world or the objective world… Basically science is the study of laws of nature and man has developed science by observing. Infact this subject has completely transformed our power over nature and the world outlook. Development of the modern technology is directly the outcome of the development of modern science.
Without the scientific revolution the industrial revolution would not have been possible. It has raised the human activity level by significant observations in the various fields of human existence. Whether it‘s the exploration of human health, industrial progress, agrarian developments and modern communication technologies, the benefits gained from this major subject are enormous. Infact it would not be wrong to say that we are living in the age of science and is a dominant factor in our day to day existence. 2. CONTRIBUTIONS OF MUSLIM SCIENTISTS
MUHAMMAD BIN MUSA AL KHWARZIMI: Made lasting contributions in the fields of Mathematics, Astronomy, Music, Geography and History. He composed the oldest works on Arithmetic and on Algebra. The oldest Mathematic book composed by him is “Kitab ul jama wat tafriq” He is the first person who used zero and wrote”Hisab ul jabr Wal Muqabla” which is conceived to be an outstanding work on the subject which included analytical solutions of linear and quadratic equations. In the field of Astronomy he compiled his own tables which formed the basis of later astronomical pursuits in both East and West.
He also contributed in the field of geographical science by writing a noteworthy book KItab ul Surat al ard. In Arabic. His book ? kitab al Tarik” is also a memorable work regarding history. AL BERUNI: Born in Afghanistan Beruni made original important contributions to science. He is conceived to be the most prominent scientists of the Islamic world who wrote around 150 books on various significant subjects concerning human existence. These subjects include Mathematics, History, Archeology, Biology, Geology, Che m is try, Religion etc.
He discussed the behavior of earth, moon, and planets in his book “Qanoon Almasudi” which is also considered as an outstanding astronomical encyclopedia. He also discovered seven different ways of finding the directions of north and south and discovered mathematical techniques to determine exactly the beginning of the seasons. Another notable discovery he made was that the speed of light is faster than sound . His wide range of scientific knowledge is also revealed through his books” kitab al saidana” and “kitab al jawahar” dealing with medicine and the types of gems their gravity respectively.
He was a prolific writer whose works showed his versatility as a scientist. AL RAZI: The famous philosopher and a notable surgeon of the Muslim world, Zakriya Al Razi was born in Ray near modern Theran Iran. His eagerness for knowledge lead him to the study of Alchemy and Chemistry, philosophy, logic, Mathematics and Physics. He was a pioneer in many areas of medicine and treatment of health sciences in general, and in particular he worked alot in the fields of paeditrics, obsterics and ophthalmology.
Al razi was the first person to introduce the use of Alcohol for medical purposes and opium for the objective of giving anesthesia to his patients. In the field of ophthalmology too Al razi gave an account of the operation for the extraction of the cataract and also the first scientist to discover the effect of the intensity of light on the eye. The modern studies confirm his understanding on the subject thus making him a great physician of all the times. ABU ALI IBN E SINA: Endowed with great powers of absorbing and retaining knowledge this Muslim scholar also made valuable contributions to he field of science. He is considered to be the founders of Medicine and also added his great efforts to the fields of Mathematics, Astronomy, Medicinial Chemistry, Philosophy, Palae ontology and Music. His most famous book is “Al Qannun” which brings out the features of human physiology and medicine. Sina is also considered as a father of the science of Geology on account of his invaluable book on mountains in which he discussed matters relating to earth’s crust and gave scientific reasons for earthquakes.
He is the author of 238 books which are fine instances of his thoughts regarding various subjects in diverse ways. JABIR BIN HAYAN: Introduced experimental research in chemical science which immensely added its rapid development and made him the Father of Chemistry. He devised methods for preparation of important chemicals like hydrochloric acid, nitric acid, and white lead. 3 Jabir’s work also deal with the refinement of metals ,preparation of steel, dyeing of cloth and leather, use of magnese dioxide in glass making, distillation of vinegar to concentrate acetic acid.
Jabir also explained scientifically two principle functions of chemistry, i. e. , calcination, and reduction and registered a marked improvement in the methods of evaporation, sublimation, distillation and crystallization He wrote more than 100 books which are one of the most outstanding contributions in the field of science especially the chemical science. ABDUL HASSAN IBN AL HAITHAM: One of the most outstanding Mathematicians, Physiologists, and Opticians of Islam. He contributed to the realms of medicine and philosophy. He wrote more than 200 scientific works on diverse subjects.
Haitham examined the refraction of light rays through transparent objects including air and water. Infact he was the first scientist to elaborate two laws of reflection of light He made a number of monumental discoveries in the field of optics ,including one which locates retina as the seat of vision. His book on optics “Kitab Al Manazir” vividly shows his grip on the subject. He constructed a pinhole camera and studied formation of images . Due to his noteworthy contributions he is regarded as one of the prolific Muslim scientists of all times.
OMAR AL KHAYAM: He was an outstanding Mathematician and Astronomer. He was also known as a poet, philosopher and a physician. He travelled to the great centers of learning of the era i. e. Samrakund, Bukhara, and Ispahan. He classified many algebraic equations based on their complexity and recognized thirteen different forms of cubic equation. He also classified algebraic theories of parallel lines. On the invitation of Sultan Jalal-ud- Din, he introduced the Jilali calendar which has an error of one day in 3770 years.
He also developed accurate methods for determination of gravity as a poet too, he is known for his Rubaiyat. He made great contributions in the development of mathematics and analytical geometry which benefitted Europe several years later. NASIR UD DIN TUSI: Al tusi was one of the greatest scientists, Mathematicians, Astronomers, Philosophers, Theologians and physicians of his time. He was a prolific writer and wrote many treatises on varied subjects like Algebra, Arithmetic, Trignometry, Geometery, Logic, Met aphy sics, medicine, ethics and Theology.
He served as a minister of Halaku Khan and persuaded him to establish an observatory and library after the destruction of Baghdad. He worked at the observatory and prepared precise tables regarding the motion of the planets. These are also known as “Tables of Khan” ZIA UD DIN IBN BAITAR: Was a famous botanist and pharmacopeias of middle ages. Because of his intensive travels, he was able to discover many plant species. He wrote many books regarding his field of specialty and is always considered as a prominent scientist among his Muslim counterparts 3.
IMPACT OF SCIENCE ON SOCIETY Science is the organization of knowledge in such a way that it commands the hidden potential in nature. This hidden potential is surfaced out by the subject of science through the process of understanding. Science has proved to be of enormous beneficial nature . It has made lasting impact on regarding each and every field of human existence. Whether it is concerned with our day to day lives or whether it is related with the various modern developments which have resulted in elevating the living standards of the individuals.
The significant contributions which the study of this subject has made are enumerated below. SCIENCE AND HUMAN ATTITUDE: The various noteworthy scientific advances have helped the individuals in raising up of their self confidence . This subject has enabled the human beings to control and modify their needs and requriements. With greater understanding of the scientific phenomena human beings have now become more confident about the environmental issues as compared to the people in the past. Infact science has promoted and paved the way for the independent and logical thinking.
SCIENCE AND HUMAN HEALTH: Before the development of modern medicinal factors, a large number of people used to lose their precious lives because of the unavailability of the sources and medicines for a proper health care. With the advancements of science now the human life expectancy rate has increased as the various modern developments in the field of health care has helped in warding off the dangerous diseases… The revolutions in surgery and medicine the infectious diseases like small pox, malaria, typhoid etc. have been eradicated. Thus science has improved the health standards of the people. SCIENCE AND TRAVEL: People used to travel on foot before the inventions of automobiles,aeroplanes and steam engines. They also used animal carts and camels for the purpose of moving from one place to another. However, the modern scientific inventions have proved to be of great significance as it has added speed to the area of travel. The quick means of transportation have decreased the distances and are a source of saving time. In fact it would not be wrong to regard that these inventions have added much peace to the lives of the modern men.
SCIENCE AND COMMUNICATION: Science has also played a significant part in the development of the modern communication technology. Earlier people were living in isolation because of the slow means of communication. Now the well developed, efficient media have made it possible to communicate with each other more rapidly and quickly. The impact of mass media is enormous. The use of computers and televisions has made the world a global village where an event in one part of the world leaves an influence on the other.
DEMERITS OF SCIENCE: Every invention of science has got its own merits and demerits. The most serious invention that science has contributed to is the development of the weapons of mass destruction like the atom and nuclear bombs. The recent wars have greatly showed that how much destruction can be brought about with the use of these lethal weapons. In fact these modern inventions of science have resulted in the elevation of the anxiety and unrest in the modern societies. Another notable demerit which the study of this subject has lead to the rise in the environmental deterioration.
Day by day the pollution factor is increasing which has proved to be very toxic and harmful for the human health. Not only the human health it is also proving fatal for the animals as well as the existing plants. The rapid developments of science and industrialization have also divided the world. The developed and the undeveloped. This division has lead to a widening gap between the status and the living standards of people. There is economic disparity which has also given rise to class distinction 4. UNIVERSE
The BIG BANG THEORY about the universe is the most widely acceptable theories with regard to the origin of the universe. According to the big bang, the universe was created sometime between 10 billion and 20 billion years ago from a cosmic explosion that hurled matter and in all directions. All the galaxies were formed from this matter. Observations of these galaxies show that they are still moving apart from each other . The universe is expanding Some scientists have suggested another theory as “steady theory:” to explain the process of the evolution of the universe.
However the general notion on which all scientists agree is the theory of Big Bang. Steady theory is the theory about the universe and the observations by the astronomers have shown that the galaxies are moving away from each other and the universe seems to be expanding. The theory shows that the new matter is always being created to fill the space left by this expansion. The new matter moves apart and forms galaxies which continue to move apart. This means that the universe always look exactly the same. It has no beginning or end but in a steady state.
However many observations have suggested that the universe has not always looked like the same. THE FUTURE OF UNIVERSE: At present the universe is expanding but the astronomers have questioned that whether or not this expansion will continue . Certain observations which have been made in this regard is that one possible ending of the universe will be the “big crunch?. The galaxies and other matter may be moving apart but their motion is restrained by their mutual gravitational attraction. If there is a sufficient matter in the universe gravity will eventually win and egin pulling the galaxies together again causing the universe to experience a reverse of the big bang i. e. , the BIG CRUNCH. However there is a possibility that there is not enough matter in the universe for the big crunch to happen. This means that if it happens then the universe will continue to expand forever. 5. GALAXY Galaxy is a huge number of stars grouped together. The term galaxy can also be described as a collection of dust, gas and stars measuring thousands of parsecs across. Galzxy contains 10000million stars and looks like a disc with a fat centre and spiral arms.
From the front it looks like a convex lens‘s Classes of galaxy: Two broad classes of galaxy are there. 1. Elliptical 2. Spiral the spiral galaxies are further sub divided into normal which constitutes of majority of spirals and barred spirals. Barred spirals have their centre in the form of the bar. The elliptical galaxies range from E 0 to E 7 from an almost spherical shape to a flattened disc. 5 Milky Way: Our galaxy is a spiral galaxy about 30,000 parsecs across. There are more than 200 billion stars in the galaxy.
Its disc appears as a faint white band that is responsible for dividing the white sky at the night into two. The name of our galaxy is Milky Way. The galaxy has three spiral arms called the Orion, Perseus, and Sagittarius arms and the whole system is rotating in space. The sun revolves around the nucleus of the galaxy once in 225 million years. This duration is also called the cosmic year. I -INTRODUCTION: Milky Way, the large, disk-shaped aggregation of stars, or galaxy, that includes the Sun and its solar system. In addition to the Sun, the Milky Way contains about 400 billion other stars.
There are hundreds of billions of other galaxies in the universe, some of which are much larger and contain many more stars than the Milky Way. The Milky Way is visible at night, appearing as a faintly luminous band that stretches across the sky. The name Milky Way is derived from Greek mythology, in which the band of light was said to be milk from the breast of the goddess Hera. Its hazy appearance results from the combined light of stars too far away to be distinguished individually by the unaided eye. All of the individual stars that are distinct in the sky lie within the Milky Way Galaxy.
From the middle northern latitudes, the Milky Way is best seen on clear, moonless, summer nights, when it appears as a luminous, irregular band circling the sky from the northeastern to the southeastern horizon. It extends through the constellations Peruses, Cassiopeia, and Cepheus. In the region of the Northern Cross it divides into two streams: the western stream, which is bright as it passes through the Northern Cross, fades near Ophiuchus, or the Serpent Bearer, because of dense dust clouds, and appears again in Scorpio; and the eastern stream, which grows brighter as it passes southward through Sputum and Sagittarius.
The brightest part of the Milky Way extends from Sputum to Scorpio, through Sagittarius. The center of the galaxy lies in the direction of Sagittarius and is about 25,000 light-years from the Sun (a light-year is the distance light travels in a year, about 9. 46 trillion km or 5. 88 trillion mi). II -STRUCTURE: Galaxies have three common shapes: elliptical, spiral, and irregular. Elliptical galaxies have an ovoid or globular shape and generally contain older stars. Spiral galaxies are disk-shaped with arms that curve around their edges, making these galaxies look like whirlpools.
Spiral galaxies contain both old and young stars as well as numerous clouds of dust and gas from which new stars are born. Irregular galaxies have no regular structure. Astronomers believe that their structures were distorted by collisions with other galaxies. Astronomers classify the Milky Way as a large spiral or possibly a barred spiral galaxy, with several spiral arms coiling around a central bulge about 10,000 light-years thick. Stars in the central bulge are close together, while those in the arms are farther apart. The arms also contain clouds of interstellar dust and gas.
The disk is about 100,000 light-years in diameter and is surrounded by a larger cloud of hydrogen gas. Surrounding this cloud in turn is a spherical halo that contains many separate globular clusters of stars mainly lying above or below the disk. This halo may be more than twice as wide as the disk itself. In addition, studies of galactic movements suggest that the Milky Way system contains far more matter than is accounted for by the visible disk and attendant clusters—up to 2,000 billion times more mass than the Sun contains.
Astronomers have therefore speculated that the known Milky Way system is in turn surrounded by a much larger ring or halo of undetected matter known as dark matter. III -TYPES OF STARS: The Milky Way contains both the so-called type I stars, brilliant, blue stars; and type II stars, giant red stars. Blue stars tend to be younger because they burn furiously and use up all of their fuel within a few tens of millions of years. Red stars are usually older, and use their fuel at a slower rate that they can sustain for tens of billions of years.
The central Milky Way and the halo are largely composed of the type II population. Most of this region is obscured behind dust clouds, which prevent visual observation. Astronomers have been able to detect light from this region at other wavelengths in the electromagnetic spectrum, however, using radio and infrared telescopes and satellites that detect X rays (see Radio Astronomy; Infrared Astronomy; X-Ray Astronomy). Such studies indicate compact objects near the galactic center, probably a massive black hole. A black hole is an object so dense that nothing, not even light, can escape its intense gravity.
The center of the galaxy is home to clouds of antimatter particles, which reveal themselves by emitting gamma rays when they meet particles of matter and annihilate. Astronomers believe the antimatter particles provide more evidence for a massive black hole at the Milky Way‘s center. Observations of stars racing around the center also suggest the presence of a black hole. The stars orbit at speeds up to 1. 8 million km/h (1. 1 million mph)—17 times the speed at which Earth circles the Sun—even though they are hundreds of times farther from the center than Earth is from the Sun.
The greater an object‘s mass, the faster an object orbiting it at a given distance will move. Whatever lies at the center of the galaxy must have a tremendous amount of mass packed into a relatively small area in order to cause these stars to orbit so quickly at such a distance. The most likely candidate is a black hole. Surrounding the central region is a fairly flat disk comprising stars of both type II and type I; the brightest members of the latter category are luminous, blue supergiant.
Imbedded in the disk, and emerging from opposite sides of the central region, are the spiral arms, which contain a majority of the type I population together with much interstellar dust and gas. One arm passes in the vicinity of the Sun and includes the great nebula in Orion. See Nebula. 6 IV -ROTATION: The Milky Way rotates around an axis joining the galactic poles. Viewed from the north galactic pole, the rotation of the Milky Way is clockwise, and the spiral arms trail in the same direction. The period of rotation decreases with the distance from the center of the galactic system.
In the neighborhood of the solar system the period of rotation is more than 200 million years. The speed of the solar system due to the galactic rotation is about 220 km/sec (about 140 mi/sec). 6. SOLAR SYSTEM The solar system includes nine planets and sun being at the centre. All the planets revolve around the sun . The solar system also includes the asteroids, meteors and numerous comets. All of these travel around the sun in a particular orbit . The planets which are the significant part of the solar system namely,Mercury,venus,earth,mars,Jupiter,Saturn
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