Sociology 101 Fill in the Blank Summer Final Exam Directions: This 50 question exam covers Chapters 1 through 15 and is due no later than noon Friday, 7/29. Each question is worth 3 points for a total of 150 points for this exam. There could be as many as 3 words necessary for the answer. The answer will be counted incorrect if all words are not exact and spelled correctly. This is an open book exam, but please do not share answers with your classmates. Remember that the integrity of the learning environment requires our honesty. Provide the number and the answer only and post in the message box located below these questions.
Be sure to click on Submit when finished. 1. The ability to see how our personal troubles are connected to public issues and social structures is called the sociological imagination. 2. Structural functionalism addresses the question of social organization or structures of society and how it is maintained or functions. 3. Value-free sociology concerns itself with establishing what is, not what ought to be. 4. Empirical research is research based on systematic, unbiased examination of evidence. 5. Manifest functions or dysfunctions are consequences of social structures that are intended or recognized. . Conflict theory addresses the points of stress and conflict in society and the ways in which they contribute to social change. 7. Symbolic interaction theory addresses the subjective meanings of human acts and the processes through which people come to develop and communicate shared meanings. 8. The experiment is a method of research strategy in which the researcher manipulates independent variables to test theories of cause and effect. 9. Social-desirability bias is the tendency of people to color the truth so that they sound more desirable and socially acceptable than they really are. 0. Replication is the repetition of empirical studies by another researcher or with different samples to see if the same results occur. 11. Content analysis refers to the systematic examination of documents of any sort. 12. The way of life shared by members of a community that includes language, values, symbolic meanings, technology and material objects is called culture. 13. Ethnocentrism is the tendency to judge other cultures according to the norms and values of our own culture. 14. Cultural relativity requires that each cultural trait be evaluated in the context of its own culture. 5. Cultural diffusion is the process by which aspects of one culture or subculture are incorporated into another. 16. Norms associated with fairly strong ideas of right and wrong that carry a moral connotation are called mores. 17. Counterculture are groups whose values, beliefs, interests, and lifestyles conflict with those of the larger culture. 18. Assimilation is the process through which individuals learn and adopt the values and social practices of the dominant group, sometimes giving up their own values in the process. 19.
When one part of culture (usually technology) changes more rapidly than another, sociologists call this cultural lag. 20. The process of learning the roles, statuses, and values necessary for participation in social institutions is called socialization. 21. The process of learning to view ourselves as we think others view us is called the looking-glass self. 22. Primary socialization is personality development and role learning that occurs during early childhood. 23. An institution is an enduring social structure that meets basic human needs. 24.
Dramaturgy is a version of symbolic interaction that views social situations as scenes manipulated by the actors to convey the desired impression to the audience. 25. The norm of reciprocity is the expectation that people will return favors and strive to maintain a balance of obligation in social relationships. 26. McDonaldization is the process by which the principles of the fast-food restaurants–efficiency, calculability, predictability, and control—are coming to dominate more sectors of American society. 27. Anomie is a situation in which the norms of society are unclear or no longer applicable to current conditions. 8. Differential association theory says that people learn to be deviant when more of their associates favor deviance than favor conformity. 29. Stratification is the institutionalized pattern of inequality in which social statuses are ranked on the basis of their access to scarce resources. 30. The world-systems theory is a conflict perspective of the economic relationships between developed and developing countries, the core and peripheral societies. 31. Environmental racism refers to the disproportionately large number of health and environmental risks that minorities face daily in their neighborhoods and workplaces. 2. Double jeopardy means having low status on two different dimensions of stratification. 33. Sexism is a belief that men and women have biologically different capacities and that these form a legitimate basis for unequal treatment. 34. The manufacturers of illness are groups that promote and benefit from deadly behaviors and social conditions. 35. Marriage is an institutionalized social structure that provides an enduring framework for regulating sexual behavior and childbearing. 36. Propinquity is spatial nearness. 7. Exogamy means choosing a mate from outside one’s own racial, ethnic, or religious group. 38. The hidden curriculum is the underlying cultural messages that schools teach to socialize young people into obedience and conformity. 39. Tracking occurs when evaluations made relatively early in a child’s career determine the educational programs the child will be encouraged to follow. 40. Secularization is the process of transferring things, ideas, or events from the sacred realm to the nonsacred, or secular, realm. 41.
The Protestant Ethic refers to the belief that work, rationalism, and plain living are moral virtues, whereas idleness and indulgence are sinful. 42. Authoritarian systems are political systems in which the leadership is not selected by the people and legally cannot be changed by them. 43. The power elite comprises the people who occupy the top positions in three bureaucracies—the military, industry, and the executive branch of government—and who are thought to act together to run the United States in their own interests. 44.
Capitalism is the economic system based on competition, in which most wealth (land, capital, and labor) is private property, to be used by its owners to maximize their own gain and profit. 45. Socialism is an economic structure in which productive tools (land, labor, and capital) are owned and managed by the workers and used for the collective good. 46. Alienation occurs when workers have no control over the work process or the product of their labor. 47. Collective behavior is spontaneous action by groups in situations where cultural rules for behavior are unclear. 48.
A social movement is an ongoing, goal-directed effort to fundamentally challenge social institutions, attitudes, or ways of life. 49. Relative-deprivation theory argues that social movements arise when people experience an intolerable gap between their expectations and the rewards they actually receive. 50. Frame alignment is the process used by a social movement to convince individuals that their personal interests, values, and beliefs are complementary to those of the movement. Instructions: Enter or paste your written work and/or click “Attachments” to upload your files.
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