INTL 1101 Final Exam Study Guide Americanization – Consumerism, individualism – American products and values – Cultural imperialism? Trying to homogenize world? McDonaldization – Fast-food principles dominant in American and other societies – Uniform standards – Lack of human creativity – Dehumanization of social relations Infantilization – Benjamin Barber “consumed” – Against “ethos of infantilization” that sustains global capitalism – Turning of adults into children through dumbed down advertising and consumer goods – Targeting children as consumers Homogeneous global products for young and wealthy, and for children => soulless and unethical global consumerism in pursuit of profit Cultural homogenization – “More alike” theory of effects of globalization – Western culture industry – Homogenization of popular culture – Can be within western societies (McDonaldization) Market for loyalties – Regulation of communications to organize cartels of imagery – Domestic broadcast regulation maintains distribution of power – National identity reframed to political views and cultural attitudes that maintain existing power structure Facilitates predominance of one ideology Cultural imperialism – World patterns of cultural flow, mirror the system of domination in world economic and political order – Not confined to the west: see Mexico, Brazil (Latin America), India (East Asia), Hong Kong, Taiwan (China) Sustainable development – Long-term economic growth depends on careful stewardship of the natural environment – Environmentalists – Liberalization= unequal economic growth, resources for debt, competition (race to the bottom), increased pollution, unsustainable consumption of resources, political unrest – Free Trade Trade promotes growth and alleviates poverty= environmental benefits – Elimination of trade barriers= increased value of resources – Environmental progress is easier to achieve under conditions of prosperity Deterritiorlization of religion – Primarily caused by migration – The case of Islam: – Muslim Ummah – Re-islamisation as deculturalisation of Islam (not linked to a particular pristine culture, global Islam) – Quest for definition: Islam to fit every culture – By bridging the gap between secularism and religiosity, Fundamentalism overstretches religion to the point that it cannot become embedded in real culture
Free trade and the environment Technological Change and Disease – Transportation – Short term travel: 940 million tourists – Meningitis: 70,000 pilgrims to Mecca every year, secondary pandemics upon return – Expensive diseases in developing countries and eradicated diseases in developed countries – Medical technologies – Greater collaboration, more information – BUT, new technologies can be badly used – Ebola in DRC, AIDS epidemics in China from unsterilized needles Demographic Change and Disease – Population mobility Conditions that lead people to move are the same that favor the emergence of infections (poverty, overcrowding, unsanitary conditions, state failure) – Refugees: sanitation, food, healthcare – 50,000 dead in a month (Rwanda, 1994) – Haiti: cholera from Nepal? (4,800 mortalities) – Long-term migration – Disease to non-immune populations, and transfer of new disease back home – Eradicated diseases re-introduced – Migrant workers in Africa (AIDS epidemics) – Urbanization – Megacities=megaspread Global economy and disease – Global trade IMF/structural adjustments and liberalization reduces the role of governments (mostly in providing healthcare) – Trade in food – Change in dietary habits, convergence of tastes – Demand for year-round availability of fresh fruit and vegetables – Products from less expensive labor markets, worldwide ingredients and transport – Food may be contaminated – Unhygienic irrigation, packaging practices, storage, non-indigenous crops more susceptible to indigenous pathogens – E-coli in Germany: 2,800 affected, 26 dead (91 in EU) – Mad Cow Disease Environmental change and disease Climate change-global warming – Higher ambient air temperature, precipitation/humidity (mosquitoes) – Water supply-dams etc – Profound ecological changes that affects disease vectors-most dams associated with increase in malaria – Deforestation – Increases contact between humans and pathogens – Decreases natural predators of disease vectors – Increases in malaria (runoff water stagnant in pools) – Loss of biodiversity Jihad and McWorld – Dialectical nature: one cannot exist without the other – Babel: retribalization – Global jihad against globalization – Disneyland Globalizations – Jihad and McWorld make war on the sovereign nation state – Indifference to civil liberty – McWorld, focus on consumption and “invisible hand” for common good (rather than democratic institutions), repeal government regulations – Jihad, bloody politics of identity, exclusion and hatred, paternalism and tribalism – Neither global markets nor blood communities service public goods or pursue equality and justice – Future? – In the short run – Jihad likely to dominate? – In the long run – McWorld dominates? – Convergence of political ideologies? Triumph of liberalism? Convergence of political cultures? Triumph of Western individualism? – Or greater divergence and even conflict? Ethnicity – High ethnic solidarity: willing to redistribute resources within the group – No “master list”; what differentiates groups in one place may not be important in another – Example: in Serbia, common language and culture, but religion divides (Hutu and Tutsi) – Ethnicity as a “social construction”—not inherently political Ethnic identity – Any specific attributes and societal institutions that make one group of people culturally different from others Language, religion, geography, customs, history, and others – Ascription—an identity assigned at birth – Largely fixed during our lives Clash of civilizations – Samuel Huntington: “The Clash of Civilizations” – “The next world war, if there is one, will be a war between civilizations” – De-Westernization and indigenization of societies – Hinduization of India and Islamic fundamentalism (Iran, Algeria, Egypt, Turkey) – The Confucian-Islamic connection – Kin-country syndrome (Bosnia, Iraq) – Civilizations do not control states; states control civilizations Interpreted the same events as Fukuyama, but made very different conclusions … — Outlined 7 main cultures (and a possible 8th); equates “culture” with “religion”: “people who share ethnicity and language but differ in religion may slaughter each other, as happened in Lebanon, the former Yugoslavia, and the Subcontinent. ” 1. Western 2. Confucian 3. Japanese 4. Islamic 5. Hindu 6. Slavic-Orthodox 7. Latin American 8. Possibly African – Why will they clash? – Differences are both real and basic (“fundamental”) – World smaller due to globalization – Nation-state as source of identity grows weaker Fundamentalist religion grows stronger – Backlash against West enhances civilization consciousness – Cultural differences less easily compromised than political and economic ones (can you be both Catholic and Muslim? ) – Economic regionalism is growing – Result: unable to mobilize support for governments based on ideology, turn to religion and civilization identity Environmentalism and the developing south Collectivity Irreducibility Characteristics of environmental issues – Complexity – Interpenetration, pollution down the road. – Temporal and spatial uncertainty – What will happen in the future, how much is it going to affect us. Irreducibility – Holistic in nature, we cannot approach only one part, we have to consider them as a whole. – Spontaneity – Things tend to happen fast especially in environmental disasters. – Collectivity – Collective action problems, common pool resources, shirking/free-riding Chinese triad Food security – All people at all times have physical and economic access to sufficient, self-nutritious food to meet their dietary needs and food preferences for an active and healthy life. (UN’s Food and Agriculture Organization) – Peak oil, peak water, peak phosphorus, peak grain, and peak fish Green revolution Problems in beginning of 20th c: not producing enough food to feed expanding population – Green Revolution: 1950-1984 – Development of high-yielding varieties of cereal grains – Expansion of irrigation infrastructure – Hybridized seeds & – Synthetic fertilizers & – Pesticides to farmers in developing countries – Transformed agriculture around the globe – World agricultural production more than doubled (world grain production increased by 250%) – Increased fossil fuel-based energy use: – Natural gas (for production of synthetic fertilizers) – Oil (for development of pesticides) – Hydrocarbon fuelled irrigation Unsustainable? (Malthusian argument) – May not necessarily increase food security (other political causes) – Promotion of monocultures, hunger vs malnutrition – Benefited wealthier farmers at the expense of poorer ones => urban migration – Extensive use and abuse of pesticides and fertilizers associated with negative health effects (cancer) – Land degradation, soil nutrients depletion Earth’s carrying capacity – No one knows!!! The Future of Food – Film watched in class, google if can’t remember GMOs Montreal Protocol – The 1987 Montreal Protocol on Substances That Deplete the Ozone Layer mandated that industrialized countries reduce their production and use of the five most widely used CFCs by 50 percent. – Delegates agree to give developing countries a ten-year grace period, allowing them to increase their use of CFCs before taking on commitments – Without the Montreal Protocol, global CFC consumption would have reached about 3 million tons in 2010 and 8 million tons in 2060, resulting in a 50 percent depletion of the ozone layer by 2035 – Montreal Protocol currently calls for a complete phaseout of HCFCs by 2030 (does not place any restriction on HFCs)
Arms Trade Treaty – 2003, Control Arms Campaign was launched (Controlarms. org) – 2006, Control Arms handed over a global petition called “Million Faces” to the UN Secretary General Kofi Annan 2006 – 2006, 153 states vote resolution 61/89 requesting the UN Secretary-General to seek the views of Member States (U. S. votes against, national controls better) – 2009, UN General Assembly launches a time frame for the negotiation of the Arms Trade Treaty. U. S. osition overturned – 2-27 July, 2012 (New York) – Currently under final negotiations – Require states to have national mechanisms for express authorization of international transfers of arms – Prohibit transfers of arms that could violate human rights and international law – Treaty Failure: – United States said it “needed more time” to review the short, 11-page treaty text (Obama administration torpedoed the treaty exactly one week after the massacre in Aurora, Colorado) Not to export weapons to countries that are under an arms embargo, or to export weapons that would facilitate “the commission of genocide, crimes against humanity, war crimes” or other violations of international humanitarian law. – Exports of arms are banned if they will facilitate “gender-based violence or violence against children” or be used for “transnational organized crime. ” – The sides, now: – Nearly 120 countries, led by Mexico, issued a joint statement on Monday saying “the overwhelming majority of (U. N. ) Member States agree with us on the necessity and the urgency of adopting a strong Arms Trade Treaty.
Our voice must be heard. ” – The five permanent Security Council members – the United States, Britain, France, China and Russia – issued their own joint statement of support for a treaty that “sets the highest possible common standards by which states will regulate the international transfer of conventional arms. ” – Important Points: – Ammunition. – Exports of ammunition are covered in the draft treaty but not imports. – Self-defense. – Some major arms-importing states (Middle East), expressed concern that their ability to import weapons could suffer if the treaty comes into force. Exemptions. – There are a number of scenarios under which arms deals would be exempt in the current draft, such as defense cooperation agreements (India) – and gifts, loans and leases of weapons. – Reporting. – Current draft says countries will send reports to the U. N. on their international arms trade but does not call for them to be made public. China, Iran and others do not want that information disseminated openly. – The NRA says the treaty would undermine gun ownership rights under the Second Amendment to the U. S. Constitution. Malnourishment
Obstacles to cooperation on environmental issues (regime, actor, general) National Identity – National identity is inherently political – Defined as a sense of belonging to a nation and a belief in its political aspirations – Often, but not always, develops from existing ethnic identity – Sense enhancers: – Common history, territory, culture, economy, rights – Why form? – Ethnic group may feel oppressed – Ethnic group may form a minority population – These conditions may call for self-government Boat people Ozone success – The 1987 Montreal Protocol on Substances That Deplete the Ozone Layer mandated that industrialized countries reduce their production and use of the five most widely used CFCs by 50 percent. – Delegates agree to give developing countries a ten-year grace period, allowing them to increase their use of CFCs before taking on commitments – New scientific evidence late 1987 – scientists announced that CFCs probably were responsible for the ozone hole – 1988, satellite data revealed that stratospheric ozone above the heavily populated Northern Hemisphere had begun to thin – Changes in the pattern of economic interests Du Pont announced that they would soon be able to produce CFC substitutes – Followed the next year by other large chemical manufacturers, including several in Europe – Major producers no longer opposed a CFC phase-out – Lobbied for extended transition periods and against controls on potential substitutes – Particularly hydro chlorofluorocarbons (HCFCs)—a class of CFC substitutes that deplete ozone but at a significantly reduced rate. – The ozone regime stands as the strongest and most effective global environmental regime. – The worldwide consumption of CFCs, which was about 1. million tons in 1986, was approximately 100,000 tons in 2010. – Without the Montreal Protocol, global CFC consumption would have reached about 3 million tons in 2010 and 8 million tons in 2060, resulting in a 50 percent depletion of the ozone layer by 2035 – HCFCs, and HFCs, are now thought to contribute to anthropogenic global warming – Up to 10,000 times more potent greenhouse gases than carbon dioxide – Montreal Protocol currently calls for a complete phaseout of HCFCs by 2030 (does not place any restriction on HFCs) Restaveks (or stay-withs) 300,000 children in domestic bondage in Haiti – Forced – Unpaid Overcropping – Deplete soil by continuously growing crops on it Overpopulation – Carrying capacity – Estimates vary widely – Inadequate fresh water – Depletion of natural resources, especially fossil fuels – Increased levels of air pollution, water pollution, soil contamination – Deforestation and loss of ecosystems – Changes in atmospheric composition and consequent global warming – Irreversible loss of arable land and increases in desertification – Mass species extinctions from reduced habitat in tropical forests due to lash-and-burn techniques (140,000 species lost per year – High infant and child mortality. – Intensive industrial farming: evolution and spread of antibiotic resistant bacteria diseases – Increased chance of the emergence of new epidemics and pandemics. – Low life expectancy in countries with fastest growing populations. – Unhygienic living conditions – Increased levels of warfare – Elevated crime rate – Less Personal Freedom / More Restrictive Laws. Demographic Transition – If standard of living and life expectancy increase, family sizes and birth rates decline Later ages of marriage, careers outside child rearing and domestic work, decreased need of children in industrialized settings – Led to increased worry about aging populations and decreased worry about future impact of population growth – BUT, after a certain level of development the fertility increases again! – Fertility-opportunity hypothesis Food vs. fuel Precision farming – Soil erosion dropped, no-till seed planting – Drip irrigation, level fields (eliminate runoff) – Global positioning: efficient harvest, less chemicals Citizenship Citizenship: individual’s or group’s relationship to the state – Swear allegiance to the state – State provides benefits – People have obligations in return – Ethnicity is fixed but citizenship is not – Can be changed by individual or state – Potentially more inclusive concept than ethnicity or national identity – Three (ethnicity, citizenship, national identity) are often connected—an ethnic group forms the nation, and they represent the citizens of a country Nationalism – Nationalism as a pride in one’s people and belief in sovereign destiny Seek to create or preserve one’s own nation (political group) through an independent state – Sovereignty is thus key – Example: Great Britain – Governments determine nationality – 1707 – The United Kingdom came into existence – Yet there was no British nation since the people of the English isles were thinking of themselves as English, Welsh, Scots, or Irish. – Propagation of the dominant English culture and language through the years created a sense of English identity. – During the 19th century non-English cultures were suffocated. Global fundamentalism Return to traditional religious values as a reaction to modernity and global culture – Restoration of sacred tradition as basis for society – Cultural authenticity vs universalizing global culture – Global phenomenon – Modern phenomenon – Fundamentalism vs globalization or fundamentalism as part of globalization? AIDS – Peaked in 2005 with 3. 4 million deaths – ~35 million infected – 14,500 new infections daily – Approximately 8000 deaths daily (3million/year) – > 90% new infections in Global South – Global responses – Millennium Development Goal 6 – Combat HIV/AIDS, malaria and other diseases Government-subsidized antiretroviral medications (Brazil, Argentina etc) – Samaritan’s Purse – The importance of Global Health Partnerships – Improving access to medicines – Financing health activities – BUT, primarily “vertical” (focus on specific diseases, and development/distribution of medicines) – Retroactive: does not focus on improving health care systems and primary care – Multiplicity of donors and actors: not aligned with government priorities International Organized Crime – Effort to exploit mechanisms of globalization – Transportation and communications technology Aided by deregulation – Possible through corruption of authorities, unethical practices of individuals and corporations – Extremely large profits (and high risk) – Global cities are main areas of activity (New York, London, Tokyo, etc. ) – Using financial services to disguise criminal activities – Defy the state, offer parallel black market structure Deforestation – Increases contact between humans and pathogens – Decreases natural predators of diseases vectors – Increases in malaria (runoff water stagnant in pools) (mosquitos) – Loss of biodiversity Arms Trafficking Lack of international treaty regulating legal arms trade – Illegal arms trade – Arms fuel conflict and crime – $60 billion a year industry – Lack of transparent data – UN: attempt to “crush illicit trade of small arms” – Cold War – Preoccupation with nuclear arms control – Small arms were not as widely disseminated – End of Cold War – Small arms “surplus” – Warsaw Pact/NATO upgrades – Difficulty in negotiations? – U. S. position – Nuclear weapons easier to negotiate Human trafficking – Labor trafficking – Sex trafficking – Victims are primarily women and children – Organ trafficking Trafficking of babies and pregnant women – Baby farm in Nigeria: sold for illegal adoption or for use in ritual witchcraft Child Soldiers Slavery – “A slave is a human being forced to work through fraud or threat of violence for no pay beyond subsistence. ” (Benjamin Skinner) – “Do you want a job? ” – Modern slavery: – More slaves now than ever before in history, 27 million – Each year 50,000 children and teenagers enter the US against their will for purposes of sexual slavery (CIA est. ) – Over 2 million trafficked slaves forced into prostitution and labor around the world 10 million slaves in South Asia (many through more than one generations) until they pay off their “debt” – 300,000 children in domestic bondage in Haiti Small arms – Over half a million people are killed each year with small arms across the world – In the United States 34,000 people are killed per year by small arms – The cost of small arms on public health, in Latin America at 14% of GDP, 10% of GDP in Brazil, and 25% of GDP in Colombia. – Registered homicide rates for Colombia, the United States, Brazil, and Venezuela among males aged 15–24 have doubled in the last ten years
Monocultures – The agricultural practice of producing or growing a single crop or plant species over a wide area and for a large number of consecutive years. – It is widely used in modern industrial agriculture and its implementation has allowed for large harvests from minimal labor. – Monocultures can lead to the quicker spread of diseases, where a uniform crop is susceptible to a pathogen Sustainable agriculture – http://en. wikipedia. org/wiki/Sustainable_agriculture Environmental change and conflict – http://www. accord. org. za/downloads/ct/ct_2011_2. pdf Environmental security Environmental change is an important source of social conflict – Many societies face more dangers from environmental change than from traditional military threats – Security policies must be redefined to take account of these new realities – Only by framing the environmental problem in security terms can the necessary level of governmental attention and social mobilization be ensured – Security institutions could contribute directly to environmental protection, given their financial resources, monitoring and intelligence-gathering capabilities, and scientific and technological expertise – Is there enough evidence to support the claim that ecological change is, or will be, a major new source of conflict? – Proponents: – Environmental scarcities are already contributing to violent conflicts in many parts of the developing world. These conflicts are probably the early signs of an upsurge of violence in the coming decades that will be induced or aggravated by scarcity – Opponents – Environmental problems are a symptom of conflict-prone social systems rather than a root cause of conflict – Are the advantages of linking environmental problems to security concerns worth the risk of militarizing a society’s responses to environmental problems? Risks undercutting the globalist and common fate understanding that may be necessary to solve the problem – If pollution a national security problem, then pollution by other countries worse than home born – It is analytically misleading to think of environmental degradation as a national security threat. – Environmental degradation and violence are very different types of threats – Organizations that provide protection from violence differ greatly from those in environmental protection – Military organizations are secretive, extremely hierarchical and centralized, and normally deploy vastly expensive, highly specialized and advanced technologies – Is environmental security an idea with more appeal in the North than the South? An excuse to continue the North’s longstanding practice of military and economic intervention – Focus on the South is a way for the North to deny its own responsibility – Calls to link the environment with security raise deep suspicions about ulterior motives Concern, contractual environment, capacity – da fuk? Fertility opportunity hypothesis – Fertility follows perceived economic opportunity – Against food aid, and development Transnational organized crime groups – Operate above and below the state – Create demand – Reach to the marginalized, impoverished and other “losers” of globalization – Use market strategies: – Hierarchically structured – Strategic alliances – investing/laundering capital – New growth areas (ex. umping toxic waste in developing countries and then negotiating lucrative contracts for the cleanup industry) – R&D – Modern accounting systems, information technologies, insuring against risk Global health partnerships Global food crisis – Enough food in the world to feed everyone but… – 925 million people experience hunger – 2/3 of these people are in Asia and the Pacific region – Highest concentrations in India, China, DRC, Bangladesh, Indonesia, Pakistan, Ethiopia – 5 million children under 5 die of hunger in developing countries – Charity may help immediate problem but is no long-term sustainable solution – Causes for food crisis 1: Natural disasters – Floods, tropical storms, and, especially, long droughts – More common and more intense (global warming) – Wars – Population displacement – Famine used as a weapon – Fields and water wells mined or contaminated – Poverty trap – Lack of seed money, land and agricultural education – Trapped in poverty by hunger – Causes for food crisis 2: – Lack of agricultural infrastructure – Lack of roads, irrigation systems, warehouses – Emphasis on urban development – Overexploitation of the environment – Poor farming practices – Deforestation – Overcropping – Overgrazing – Economic downturns FAO – Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO) Policy and technical assistance to developing countries for food security, nutrition and agriculture – Forum for negotiation of agreements and debate on policies Fukuyama (the end of history) – Francis Fukuyama, “The End of History” – “The triumph of the West…an unabashed victory of economic & political liberalism…& the total exhaustion of viable systematic alternatives to Western liberalism. ” – Liberal democracy will make the world safer – Democracies do not go to war against each other – Globalization – interdependence – Great faith in International Organizations – Washington Consensus – Critics: – Environmentalists – Marxists – Anarco-capitalism – Etc.
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