Leadership Midterm Chapter 1 Introduction 1. Leadership- a process whereby an individual influences a group of individuals to achieve a common goal. 2. Trait vs Process Leadership- innate characteristics that individuals are born with vs properties possessed that one is able to develop. 3. Assigned vs Emergent Leadership- based on occupying a position within an organization vs an individual perceived by others as most influential member of a group regardless of individuals title. 4. Power- capacity or potential to influence (beliefs, attitudes, & actions) 5. Bases of Power: . Referent power- follower’s identification and liking for the leader b. Expert- based on followers’ perceptions of the leader’s competence. c. Legitimate- having status or formal job authority. d. Reward- having the capacity to provide rewards to others. e. Coercive- having the capacity to punish others. Real, Expert, Leaders, Reward Compliance (1st two are personal power while the ladder three are positional power) Chapter 2 Trait Approach * One of the first systematic attempts to study leadership. Early theories focused on innate qualities/characteristics. Major Leadership traits***: 1. Intelligence- verbal, perceptual, and reasoning capabilities 2. Self-confidence- certainty about one’s competencies and skills 3. Determination- desire to get the job done 4. Integrity- quality of honesty and trustworthiness. 5. Sociability- Leader’s inclination to seek out pleasant social relationships. Israel’s, security, defense, is, strong * Big Five Personality factors: 1. Neuroticism- tendency to be depressed, anxious, insecure,… (don’t want) 2. Extraversion**- tendency to be sociable and assertive with positive energy. . Openness- informed, creative, insightful, and curious. 4. Agreeableness 5. Conscientiousness- thorough, organized controlled, dependable, and decisive. * Emotional Intelligence- ability to perceive and apply emotions to life’s tasks. The premise is that people who are more sensitive to emotions & their impacts will be more effective leaders. Chapter 3 Skills Approach * Leadership skills- ability to use one’s knowledge and competencies to accomplish a set of goals and objectives. * Katz developed the Three-Skill Approach: 1.
Technical- having knowledge about and being proficient in a specific type of work or activity. 2. Human skill- having knowledge about and being able to work with people. 3. Conceptual skill- the ability to do the mental work of shaping meaning of organizational policy or issues. Top management has high human and conceptual, but low technical. Middle management has high everything Supervisory management has high technical, high human, and low conceptual. * Chapter 4 Style Approach Style Approach emphasizes the behavior of the leader: 1. Task behaviors 2. Relationship behaviors
Studies: 1. Ohio state studies developed a leadership behavior description questionnaire (LBDQ) and it resulted in leaders with initiating structure and consideration. 2. University of Michigan-results in leaders with two type of behavior: employee oriented and production oriented. Blake & Mouton’s Managerial Leadership Grid focuses on concern for production and people. *Be able to draw this* Note that the first 4 chapters focused on the leader and his abilities. The next few chapters focus on the interaction with subordinates. Chapter 5 Situational Approach
Leaders must match their style to the competence and commitment of subordinates. Leaders need to diagnose the situation and then adapt their style. **** Chapter 6 Contingency Theory Leader Match Theory Fiedler developed the Contingency model High LPCs are effective in moderately favorable conditions while low LPCs are effective in extreme conditionis. Chapter 7 Path-Goal Theory Centers on how leaders motivate subordinates to accomplish designated goals. Leadership generates motivation when it: 1. Increases rewards (payoffs) 2. Increases assistance by leader- clarifies & defines goals 3.
Removes obstacles 4. Makes work personally satisfying R,C&D,O,S Chapter 8 Leader-Member Exchange Theory High quality leader member exchanges between leaders and followers produced multiple positive outcomes (less employee turnover, greater commitment, promotions,.. ) Quint Studer Introduction Managers create the best possible plan to deal with the changing external environment. And they do this in a quick fashion. “We are only as strong as our weakest link. ” Chapter 1 Alignment Healthcare organizations must be aligned to provide excellent medical care.
The difficulty here is that most organizations don’t have a uniform or seamless organization. It takes significant amounts of time for information/procedures to flow down through the organization from C-Suite leaders to supervisory personnel and this process needs to speed up. Chapter 2 Action How quickly and effectively leaders can drive action determines whether an organization lives or dies. As leaders we must be able to anticipate the outcome of changes in the external environment as they are occurring and respond appropriately. This is prohibited as the majority of leaders do need get prepared for their leadership role.
Studer identifies that the training should cascade through an organization with leader taking ownership of training leaders below them. Chapter 3 Accountability Organizations require a system to be in place that holds people accountable for their actions. While top managers might say that their leaders are performing exceptionally when compared with yearly goals this doesn’t line up. The majority of time the managers results doesn’t match up with there reviews because there is a serious disconnect. Studer suggests that leaders take the lead in creating accountable organizations.
Set specific goals, properly measure the data, and watch how results vary, act accordingly. Also, be able to change the system quickly as the environment changes. Chapter 4 Leader Consistency & Best Practices All leaders in the organization need to be consistent with each other and adopt/implement best practices. Leaders often have difficult implementing best practices. Reasons for this include that leaders of one organization might not want their successful strategies being utilized in another company because they will no longer have the edge.. Current Events Hospital Partnerships
Hospitals are now forming partnerships in an attempt to decrease expenses and increase quality of care. Understand what the term synergistic means. Ex. 1+ 1=3 Together something may be obtained, but individually this could never happen. Fraying Hospital Safety Nets While safety net hospitals receive less reimbursement for procedures they are still maintaining high quality of compare. This article demonstrated through studies that these less aesthetically pleasing hospitals have similar if not better readmission rates than others. Healthcare Reform Law Creates New Age of Consumerism
If Obamacare gets implemented the 40 million uninsured individuals in the US will now have access to healthcare. This brings a new age of consumers accessing health services. Since a lot more people are coming into the system many companies are restructuring their services to make them more “digestible” said Karen ignangi CEO. Medi-cal recipients warned they could lose day healthcare benefit Medical recipients might loose ability to attend adult day healthcare center where they receive nursing care, social services, and meals. To continue receiving benefits these individuals must enroll in managed care programs.
Cedars Sinai- UCLA cut from LA city health plan Because of increased cost cefars and ucla DOCTORS have been cut from anthem blue cross network. 60,000 employees are unable to attend these hospitals for future services. Because of research and public perception cost these hospitals are capable of charging higher rates. New system for patients to report medical mistakes “Currently there is no mechanism for consumers to report information about patient safety events. ” Politicians and other officials state that it would be beneficial to implement a system where patients/consumers can give feedback regarding their experiences.
This will increase the quality of care over time. Some officials are worried that patients may mischaracterize an outcome as an adverse event because they have a lack of medical knowledge. Patients would report these errors using a website and telephone interviews. What, when, where,.. Allergan drops bid for FDA approval to promote Lap-Band for teens The company sought permission from FDA to promote lap band for kids as young as 14. After a period of time they withdraw the permission and stopped asking for it. The company faces declining revenues and is likely trying to bring them up by getting into a new market of younger kids/adults.
Allergan has yet to publish their clinical results which creates doubt in its effectiveness and may be the reason why they withdrew permission. Five people have died as a result of procedures and obesity is still a catastrophic problem in our society. We need to be pushing diet, exercise, and healthy eating habits rather than surgery.. Filipino nurses win language discrimination settlement $975,000 settlement was reached between the hospital and many philipino nurses that worked there and were prevented from speaking their native language. They claimed they were followed and harassed by security and other individuals.
They were even threatened by the instillation of security cameras. All the while other individuals were aloud to speak their native languages like Spanish. Administrators don’t want them speaking other languages because it makes patients feel uncomfortable. Patients need to know what’s going on at all times since their health is at stake.. Doctor turns away obese patients Put staff at risk, office isn’t equipped to handle care of over weight patients, equipment costs are high. She is legally allowed to do this but ethically it is unsound. Where did Dr. Rubino go on vacation?
St Petersberg, Russia KNOW THE TRENDS IN HEALTHCARE: 1. Cost cutting will be top of mind for CEOs: mergers/partnerships, outsourcing functions to less costly vendors,… 2. IT will also be of importance; incorporating EMR, and health information exchange 3. Expect consolidation, mergers, and zcquisitions 4. Expect higher turnover in C-suite as redirection and early retirements occur. These positions are now more demanding and involve more conflict. KNOW THE CASE STUDIES WE DID IN CLASS (HINT) Study the case studies they will be reworded Introduction is included in Quint Studer
When you permit you promote Draw the contingency model What would prevent a manger from preventing a best practice? Ego is one answer What word could you use to describe _______? Synergistic relationships*** Exam question His own article on the amount of money that is being wasted in the medical field. The budget for medical services per year in the US is $2. 2 Trillion of which $750 billion is determined to be wasted. There is groups like administrative waste (working on projects and things that are not necessary), physicians suggesting services not contingent with evidence based medicine, fraud,…
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