Institutional Factors Mean Std. Deviation Rank

Government policies and strategies that supports women’s participation in leadership are not adequate 3.76 1.253 3rd
Women’s policy encourage women to participate in political leadership 3.77 1.284 2nd

Affirmative action is not properly implemented to increase women participation in leadership 3.70 1.322 4th
There is conducive policies and strategies that supports women’s leadership participation 3.63 1.320 5th
Women should get additional chance to increase their participation in public leadership 3.80 1.324 1st
Lack of women role model 3.29 1.465 6th

Grand/Overall 3.661 1.328
Source: field survey, 2018
Rating scale: 1=strongly disagree, 2= disagree, 3=Neutral, 4= Agree, 5=strongly agree

As showed on the above table 4.5, the mean rating scale value of on adequacy of government policies and strategies supports for women was founded 3.76 with SD of 1.253. This mean rating value portrays that most of respondents were agreed on the item raised. This implies that government policies and strategic supports for women’s to participate in leadership are not adequate.
The next question forwarded to respondents was on women policy encouragement for women to participate in political leadership at mean rating scale value of 3.77 with SD of 1.284. This mean rating value shows that most of respondents were agreed on the item raised. This implies that women’s policy encourage women to participate in political leadership position.
The other question asked to respondents was on affirmative action at mean rating scale value of 3.70 with SD of 1.322. This mean rating value indicates that most of respondents were agreed on the item raised. This implies that affirmative action is not properly implemented to increase women participation in leadership.
The constitution of the Federal Democratic Republic of Ethiopia (FDRE, 1995), incorporates the article which states the affirmative action’s entitled for women. Article 35 of the FDRE constitution states the rights guaranteed for women. There are also policies and procedures developed at national level which are focusing on women. But as it can be evident from the collected data, these policies and instruments are not properly implemented in selected public organizations found in Adami Tullu Woreda. The interviewed informants were also affirmed the improper implementation of affirmative action’s for women in their organizations.
Respondents were further asked to give their insight whether the there is conducive policies and strategies that supports women’s leadership participation. In this regard the mean rating score value was 3.63 with the SD 1.320 implying that “agreement” on the issue described. This implies that there are conducive policies and strategies that support women’s leadership participation.
The result from interview confirmed that policies and strategies that support women’s leadership participation are available but implementation of those policy and strategy is questionable.
Women should get additional chance to increase their participation in public leadership at mean rating scale value of 3.80 with SD of 1.324. This mean rating value shows that most of respondents were agreed on the item raised. This implies that women should get additional chance to increase their participation in public leadership.
On Lack of women role model at mean rating scale value of 3.29 with SD of 1.465 implying that “agreement” on the issue described. This implies that lack of women role model affected women’s leadership participation.
The result from interview shows that majority of interview respondents confirmed that they lack role model in their work and they are not fully confident on their role and assigned responsibility and this affected their participation in leadership position, because most of the time our assignment and responsibility doesn’t match.
The composite/ grand mean rating scale was founded 3.661at SD of 1.328 showing that the respondents agreed with the institutional factors that affect women’s participation in leadership position.
Economic Factors Mean Std. Deviation Rank

Women’s lack of access to resources limit their participation in leadership position 3.37 1.353 4th
The dominance of men over many resources negatively affected women’s participation in political leadership 3.70 1.235 2nd
Women are tied up on how they can improve their lives rather than participating in leadership 3.37 1.325 4th
High unemployment rate of women affected their participation in leadership 3.74 1.266 1st
Most women are found at the lower job grading 3.59 1.315 3rd

Grand/Overall 3.554 1.299
Source: field survey, 2018
Rating scale: 1=strongly disagree, 2= disagree, 3=Neutral, 4= Agree, 5=strongly agree

As it can be clearly indicated in the above table the mean rating scale value of women’s lack of access to resources was founded 3.37with SD of 1.353. This mean rating value portrays that most of respondents were agreed on the item raised. This implies that women’s lack of access to resources deters them from participation in leadership.
Respondents were further asked to give their insight whether the male dominance over many resources negatively affected women’s leadership participation. In this regard the mean rating score value was 3.70 with the SD 1.235 implying that “agreement” on the issue described. This implies that male dominance over many resources negatively affected women’s leadership participation.
The result from the open-ended questions and interview confirmed that the male dominance over many resources hinder women participation in leadership position, according to reply of majority respondents explained as, economy has high influence because in (Adami Tullu Worda) study area traditionally in most case women do not have the chance to decide on the common wealth/recourses equal to men, there is saying “how women posses resources over man” this may lead them less educational achievement.
The other question asked to respondents was on women are tied up on how they can improve their lives rather than participating in leadership
3.37 with SD of 1.325. This mean rating value portrays that most of respondents were agreed on the item raised. This implies that women are tied up on how they can improve their lives rather than participating in leadership this hampers their leadership participation.
High unemployment rate of women affected their participation in leadership at mean rating scale value of 3.74 with SD of 1.266. This mean rating value portrays that most of respondents were agreed on the item raised. This implies that high unemployment rate of women affects them from leadership participation.
Most women are found at the lower job grading at mean rating scale value of 3.59 with SD of 1.315. This mean rating value portrays that most of respondents were agreed on the item raised. This implies that most women are found at the lower job grading affects them from participation in leadership.
The result from interview and FGD shows that majority of interviewee and FGD respondents confirmed that most women found at lower jobs such as: accountant, clerical work, etc even in sectors where there are lower strategic activities are given to women, because the society think that women are incapable to manage big sectors and also women themselves prepare themselves for that type of work.
The composite mean rating scale was founded 3.554at SD of 1.299 showing that the respondents agreed that economic factors affected female participation in leadership position.

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