People need many natural resources to live. Other natural resources are used to make life easier. Defining Global Governance Governance is the framework of social and economic systems and legal and political structures through which humanity manages itself. ” World Humanity Action Trust, 2000. Environmental governance “is the term we use to describe how we as humans exercise our authority over natural resources and natural systems. ” It is about questions concerning “how we make environmental decisions and who makes them…. Using this broad conceptualization, environmental governance involves much more than the work of governments. It “relates to decision-makers at all levels-?government managers and ministers, business people, property wieners, farmers, and consumers. In short, it deals with who is responsible, how they wield their power, and how they are held accountable. ” In discussions of governance, three terms come up often: Institutions. In the context of governance, “institutions” can be thought of as the formal and informal rules that govern social interactions.
Formal rules are illustrated by laws and regulations, and informal rules are illustrated by social norms. Good governance. This term is used to describe governance characterized by high levels of transparency, accountability, and fair treatment. Civil society. This term “refers to the arena of uncovered collective action around shared interests, purposes and values. In theory, its institutional forms are distinct from those of the state, family and market, though in practice, the boundaries between state, civil society, family and market are often complex, blurred and negotiated.
Civil society commonly embraces a diversity of spaces, actors and institutional forms, varying in their degree of formality, autonomy and power. Civil societies are often populated by organizations such as registered charities, development non-governmental organizations, community groups, women’s organizations, faith-based organizations, professional associations, trades unions, self-help groups, social movements, business associations, coalitions and advocacy group. ” Why Reform?
Nature of problems Scale, scope and complexity Failed collective action Lack of incentives for collaboration Fragmentation Institutional proliferation Deficient authority Inadequate mandate, funding, political support Insufficient legitimacy Lack of process and outcome fairness What to Reform? Institutional structure re’s Institutional methods of governing What to Achieved? Improved problem solving Improved collective action Enhanced legitimacy Strengthened policy space Improved fairness New global ethic How to Reform?
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