Complete 7 pages APA formatted article: Materials and Process: Welding. Welding is done by making use of fusion techniques in which one metal is fused into the other to give the essence of being essentially a single element whereas non-fusion processes do not make use of welding techniques and are carried out without making use of filler material as in case of soldering and brazing.  .Solid-phase welding is the type of fusion process that essentially makes use of welding techniques without incorporating heat, for example, friction welding. Poor welds result in early failure of mechanical structures and can result in such serious consequences.
Defects and failures are observed in mechanical systems and components as a result of excessive wear or loading of the component. Here is the exhaustive list of some of the most commonly used components in important mechanical systems with their associated defects and failures.
Below is the image of an aluminum collet used to get attached to a steel rope. These specifically made of molten aluminum, cast to get the desired shape. Casting gives good strength and durability to the final products. Casted equipment is then precision machined with CNC machining tools to give better accuracy to the collets. It is used underwater due to the corrosion resistance property of aluminum. Aluminum gets oxidized quickly and its oxide is hard and ductile in nature which really protects the ships and other underwater substances from corrosion.
Stabilized stainless steel is specifically used to prevent intergranular corrosion instances. In such cases, corrosion directly attacks the boundaries of the crystallites within the crystalline materials. In stabilized stainless steel, these crystalline boundaries are protected by introducing other elements like chromium which make a layer of their carbides over the crystals thus making the surfaces corrosion-resistant (Erve et al., 1997). Therefore, it is less prone to corrosion at temperatures below 50ͦ C in a chlorine environment.