Muslim Press during the War of Independence of 1857 and Aftermath This disintegration of Mughal Empire started after the demise of the emperor aourangzeb, to which several causes are ascribed which are at present out of out study. Form journalistic point of viuew , we should have a glance to the independence war of 1857and its effects. The struggle for the feerdom of the county began long before 1875.
Including the infidelity of the Hindus and infidelity of other sections of the native inhabitants of the sub-continent. However it was fully realized that armed struggle would be futile and that the situation demanded a long political and constitutional struggle for the coveted independence. The muslime of the sub-continent also realized the facts of being a minority in the sub-continent and being left alone to their fate by the major sections of the natives, especially the Hindus.
The Hindus betrayed the muslims in the independence war of 1857 outrageously, rather joined hands with the British ruling clique in order to gain illegitimate advantages over the muslims, with the ulterior motive to avenge their slavery to the muslim rule for wver one thousand years. Hthe clear visualization of these facts and realization of their lost political, social, educational, economic and cultural supremacy resulted in the origin of two-nation theory which proved the way to the creation of Pakistan.
The British government marked the former rulers of Delhi as their rivals. The failure of the struggle resulted in degeneration of the Islamic society in India, politically, socially , economically and culturally. Even before the decline of the political authority of the Mughals, the decay of Indian Muslims set in. Economically not only the upper class of the muslims that suffered under the new conditions, the peasants and the weavers forming the lower class or order of Muslim society were also badly affected.
The change of government and the colonial and imperialist oppressive policies effected especially the muslim society, as they were the rulers before the East India. Company. At that stage, there was a revival of Hindu feeling of antagonism against the muslim coincident with the gradual weakening of the Mughal empire. The Hindus found greater relief with the advent of the British on Indian political stage. That is why most of the important families of the Hindu society sided directly or indirectly with the English.
Even long before the independence war of 1857, the Hindus enjoyed the cooperation in the field of commerce with the East India Company. After the failure of the great struggle, the muslims of the sub-continent were politically, socially, culturally, economically crushed, and they became dormant after the shock of their defeat and demoralization On the other hand the Hindus were lavished all the opporitunities of business, commerce and employments. But is should be understood that the press at that stage was u buts infancy and was very feeble to influence the general public.
It was next to impossibility that the native press with its total circulation of little more than five thousand could influence that whole sub-continent. After the struggle was over the newspapers especially owned by the Muslim were represses and disappeared from the scene, immediately after the 1857 independence war was over. During the war of independence the press just sided with the cause of the freedom-fighters. The launched strenuous efforts to boost up the morale of the people, by proving the cause of the struggle as just and justified.
It published the progress if the war constantly and kept. The people in touch with the latest developments. The press though feeble it was raised criticisms against. The oppressive policies and atrocities of the British. In this struggle, “Delhi Urdu Akbar” “Khulasat-ul-Akbar and Sadiq-ul-Akbar actively took part in advancing and justifying the cause of the freedom fighters. They criticized the oppressive polices of the britishers. They amply gave space to the reporting of news and editorial on the subject. There polices, writing and editorials caused alarm among the British ruling party.
Muslim press’s point of view the Muslim press raised their voice against the high oppressiveness meted out to the Muslims specially. The press quoted examples of atrocities the innocent Muslims, with glaring examples of objectives obliterate the Muslims their institutions their traditions and culture. On the other hand the Anglo-Indian press issued highly provocative statements in the form of the editorials and columns the overly incit3d their co-patriots to avenge the English murders and even delved into ethnic ribaldry, by freely lavishing abuses on the natives.
The Anglo- Indian press accused the native press of gaining its selfish ends and fostering sedition and racial and religious animosities. Sir Syed Ahmad Khan Journalist. A Part from the freedom of the individual Islam has emphasized the free expression of ideas more than any other religion. It was due to the force of junctures of their history. The truth of Islamic massages provided them hope and courage in all stages of human disappo9ntment, one such difficult hour in Muslim history was the aftermath of the war of freedom in 185.
Its disastrous consequences drove the Muslims into total alienation depression an degradation . but the forceful massage of Islam. Apart from the exhortations of mystics, religious scholars. And such enlightened philosophers as Syed Ahmad Khan them from total collapse. The trauma of 1857 left the Muslims of the sub-continent paralyzed socially, economically and politically. Apart from the untiring efforts put up by such Muslim luminaries as Sir Syed the Muslims press also played major role in bringing the ship of Muslim destiny ashore.
Sir Sayyid not only wanted to unite the Muslims to become an effective social and political force but he also wanted to equip them with education necessary to fight a political battle of their rights in future. It was for this purpose that he opened a college which acquired the statues of a university later at Aligarh. A class of conscientious Muslim leader rose up to face the situation. It was decidedly the British imperialism which had firmly clutched the sub-consent in her iron hands, against which only political and constitutional warfare was feasible.
It was the Muslims who were chagrined and disappointed where for the Hindus as usually successfully contrived with the ruling party in order to again their end nefarious objectives to wreak vengeance on the Muslims their pas masters and rulers. The Britisher applied their full force and polices to crush down the of the Muslim and the past rulers form whom they snatched power and grabbed land treacherously. The British rulers were fully aware of the philosophy of “Jehad” a basic tent in Islamic teaching and dearly cherished by the Muslims.
There appeared a very wide gap between the Muslims and the government; and there was no one to bridge the gap. Objectives: Sir Sayyid Ahmad khan was the person who actually laid the foundations of the press as an institution of society. He launched and sponsored” Tahzib-ul-Akhlaq” and a bilingual “scientific society Magazine” with the role a motive to teach to deliver a message and to preach . the objectives can be summarized as below. The main objective was to usher in a cultural revolution gradually in muslin Society.
Secondly it was intended to re-introduce complete thinking of age-old concepts unrelated to the real spirit of Islam. By the periodicals it wais intended to interdicted journalism –cum- literature with the implicit objective to present Islam in a rational and scientific perspective and foundations , shredding away the superstitions and futile traditions and convections which have penetrated in the fold of Islamic injunctions due to age-long mingling with the Hinduism.
It was intended to the Muslims to the modern thinking and modern technology , civilization and allied progressive trends as witnessed in Europe. It was intended to urge the people to wake up from their good for nothing life which shrouded them in complete darkness and ignorance and carelessness. It was prescribed to urge and mould the Muslims to learn modern sciences. These periodicals were floated to assist the Muslims to be conscious of their glorious past of Islam.
The main streams of positive thinking and development on sound footings. It was positively implied to introduce a gradual but health transformation of life in accordance with the teachings of Islam. The paper and the magazines by Sir Sayyid Ahmad khan were full- fledged program of introducing a comprehensive plan for social cultural literary and educational uplift. And renaissance of muslin society in the sub-continent which has fallen in the abysmal depth of ignominy. Risala-i-Baghawat-i-Hind (The Cause Indian Revolt):-
Sir Syed Ahmad Khan in his above edited risala to bridge the ever increasing gap between the rulers and the Muslims and tried to allay the weight of responsibility of the alleged mutiny which was true cause of the so-called mutiny which was not a sudden phenomena but a general accumulation of differences and grievances for the last so many years. As such the contributory factors leading to the revolt war, according to Sir Syed Ahmad Khan are the following;- The so –called munity was caused due to several wrong- doing, frustrations against the ruled.
People had lost all faith in the British Rulers. From the activates of the Christian missionaries in the sub continent, the people rightly believed that the alien government was bound to meddle into the religious affairs of the people. Economically the people ascribed their ruination to the money lending classes besides rates of revenue assessments. It not only reduced them to extreme impoverishment but also shaker their allegiance and faith to the British.
With the introduction of new administrative setup and structure in the sub continent besides dissolution of native durbars and disbandment of the princely armies: all factors joined together in giving rise to a widespread unemployment in the whole of the sub-continent. The British made manufactures first throttled the indigenous industri3s due to their low cost of production and choked the industries in the sub continent. The policy first accelerated the unemployment. Second Phase Of Muslim Press:
In the face of Hindu prejudice and the pressure of newly emerging social and political realities, the all-India Muslim league was established on December 30, 1906. Nawab Viqar –ul-Mulk, Nawab Samiullah , of Daca, and Mazhar-ul –Haq were some of the prominent Muslim leaders who played a significant part in the formation of a Muslim political organization . which could effectively voice the grievances and demand of the Muslim community and struggle for their rectification or realization, Maulana Muhammad ali, who was also present at this session, was one of the leading daftman of the league constriction . uring the later decades, Maulana Muhammad Ali along with his brother , Maulana Shaukat ali waged a relentless struggles for the rights of the Muslims Maulana Muhammad ali’s comrade along with a few other Muslim publication became the preventative voice of Muslim interests in India . Maulana Muhammad ali , Muolana Zafar Ali khan and Maulana Abdul Kalam Azad were a trio of Muslim newsmen and struggle for freedom . Maulana Muhammad Ali and Maulana Zafar Ali khan became the advocate of a two nation theory. While Maulana azad Joind hands with the Indian national congress.
Oudh Punch :- Appeared in January 12,1857 in activities of the worshippers of new light . it somehow became the organ of public opinion and user to write against the British policies harmful for the people of India . it opposed all such measures. Dawn And star India : As the urgency of bringing out a daily English newspaper form Delhi became more poignant, the Quaid desired that “the star of India “Calcutta should be shifted to Dehli but should continue its circulation there to as an evening newspaper. After detailed exchange of news between MR M.
A. H isphanci and the Quaid it was deiced that weekly Dawn should be converted into a daily and the star should continue its publication from its parent place . The selection of and editor posed some problems. With the exception of Berelvi of the Bombay Chronle. A Hindu owned daily and Abdur Rahman Siddiqi of the Morning Newz Calcutta there was no first class Muslim editor of and English daily. finanyl than postman Joseph was persuaded into accepting the editorship and daily dawn became a really in 1942.
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