Provide a 2 pages analysis while answering the following question: Are There Counterexamples to the Closure Principle by Jonathon Vogel. Prepare this assignment according to the guidelines found in the APA Style Guide. An abstract is required.
To help make his point, the author provides a clear example in the form of a Dretske case regarding a zebra in a zoo. Through this example, the author is then able to explain the Dretske argument relatively clearly, illustrating what is meant by the Closure principle and how this principle ends up facing a counterexample. From here, he then proves how the counterexample fails in this particular case. This presentation of his argument makes it much easier to understand than some of the other articles on this subject.
By presenting a relatively concrete case full of strong imagery, the author makes it possible for the layman reader to follow his thoughts and then gain a relatively clear understanding of what he’s saying. Then he expands his case to apply to a broader example, using examples of car theft and the lottery to explain what he calls the lottery proposition, in which possibilities have to exist somewhere in order for that to be considered a counterexample. In analyzing these examples, the author illustrates how the principles discovered do not undercut skepticism even though they prove that counterexamples to the closure principle do not exist.
The detailed style of the article and the straight-forward ‘concrete’ form of his examples, rather than the abbreviated ps and qs of other articles, makes it possible to follow his thought to its final conclusion.