Provide a 5 pages analysis while answering the following question: Estimates of Learning Disabilities. Prepare this assignment according to the guidelines found in the APA Style Guide. An abstract is required. Department of Education (1994) estimated that at least 4% of school-aged children received special education services for LD. And finally, one of the most recent estimates reported that 7.7% of children had LD (Lethbridge-Çejku, & Vickerie, 2001)
The common definition provided by the National Joint Committee on Learning Disabilities (NJCLD) identifies the key aspects of LD: “a heterogeneous group of disorders manifested by significant difficulties in the acquisition and use of listening, speaking, reading, writing, reasoning or mathematical abilities. These disorders are intrinsic to the individual and presumed to be due to Central Nervous System Dysfunction. Even though a learning disability may occur concomitantly with other handicapping conditions (e.g. sensory impairment, mental retardation, social and emotional disturbance) or environmental influences (e.g. cultural differences, insufficient/inappropriate instruction, psychogenic factors) it is not the direct result of those conditions or influences” (NJCLD, 2001, p.27).
The NJCLD describes four broad categories of LDs based on the separate stages of information processing that play an important role in the process of learning. This four-component model was established by the late 1960s and has been widely used up to date:
1) Input: this category of LD relates to visual and auditory perception. Visual perception disability results in a variety of difficulties in recognizing the shape and position of visually perceived objects. Reversed or rotated letters, distinguishing background objects from significant forms, and poor perception of distance and depth are the most common problems. Auditory perception disability causes problems in distinguishing minor differences in sounds which leads to confusion of words, difficulties in keeping up with the flow of conversation, etc.