Quiz 8

Cognitive dissonance theory is most helpful for understanding the impact of: (Points : 1)       a. frustration on aggression. b. groupthink on social conflict. c. deindividuation on the bystander effect. d. team membership on social loafing. e. role-playing on attitude change. | 2. Bonnie pedals an exercise bike at her health club much faster when other patrons happen to be working out on nearby equipment. This best illustrates: (Points : 1)       a. the bystander effect. b. the mere exposure effect. c. the foot-in-the-door phenomenon. d. social facilitation. e. group polarization. 3. Although Natalie receives somewhat greater rewards from her marriage than does her husband, both are satisfied with the relationship because they each benefit in proportion to what they put into it. This best illustrates the significance of: (Points : 1)       a. equity. b. deindividuation. c. the bystander effect. d. social facilitation. e. the mere exposure effect. | 4. The hostilities between two racial subgroups of a riverfront community were dramatically reduced when the threat of their river flooding its banks required that they work together to save their town.
This best illustrates the impact of: (Points : 1)       a. the mere exposure effect. b. groupthink. c. superordinate goals. d. deindividuation. e. the bystander effect. | 5. Research participants who worked alongside someone who rubbed his or her face or shook his or her foot were observed to do the same thing themselves. This best illustrated: (Points : 1)       a. the mere exposure effect. b. the chameleon effect. c. social loafing. d. deindividuation. e. the bystander effect. | 6. When buying groceries, many shoppers prefer certain products simply because they have a familiar brand name.
This preference best illustrates the importance of: (Points : 1)       a. social traps. b. the mere exposure effect. c. mirror-image perceptions. d. the reciprocity norm. e. deindividuation. | 7. Following Germany’s defeat in World War I and the economic chaos that followed, many Germans experienced increasing levels of prejudice toward Jews. This surge of hostility can best be explained in terms of the (Points : 1)       a. mere exposure effect. b. reciprocity norm. c. just-world phenomenon. d. scapegoat theory. e. bystander effect. | 8.

Professor Stewart wrote a very positive letter of recommendation for a student despite his having doubts about her competence. Which theory best explains why he subsequently began to develop more favorable attitudes about the student’s abilities? (Points : 1)       a. cognitive dissonance theory b. social exchange theory c. two-factor theory d. scapegoat theory e. equity theory| 9. Mr. Hughes heard what sounded like cries for help from a swimmer located 30 yards from the ocean shoreline. He continued walking along the beach, however, because he figured that one of the many swimmers in the vicinity would provide help if it was needed.
His reaction best illustrates the dynamics involved in: (Points : 1)       a. the fundamental attribution error. b. group polarization. c. the bystander effect. d. the foot-in-the-door phenomenon. e. the mere exposure effect. | 10. In a study of social loafing, blindfolded students were asked to pull on a rope as hard as they could. The students tugged hardest when they thought: (Points : 1)       a. three others were pulling with them. b. three others were pulling against them. c. no others were pulling with them. d. no one was monitoring how hard they pulled. | 11.
Bart complied with his friends’ request to join them in smashing decorative pumpkins early one Halloween evening. Later that night he was surprised by his own failure to resist their pressures to throw eggs at passing police cars. Bart’s experience best illustrates the: (Points : 1)       a. bystander effect. b. foot-in-the-door phenomenon. c. fundamental attribution error. d. frustration-aggression principle. e. just-world phenomenon. | 12. Although Frieda is typically very reserved, as part of a huge rock concert crowd she lost her inhibitions and behaved in a very sexually provocative way.
Frieda’s unusual behavior is best understood in terms of: (Points : 1)       a. the bystander effect. b. social facilitation. c. deindividuation. d. the mere exposure effect. e. the fundamental attribution error. | 13. Marilyn judges her professor’s strict class attendance policy to be an indication of his overcontrolling personality rather than a necessity dictated by the limited number of class sessions in a course that meets only once a week. Her judgment best illustrates: (Points : 1)       a. the mere exposure effect. b. group polarization. c. deindividuation. d. he foot-in-the-door phenomenon. e. the fundamental attribution error. |
14. Compared to their female classmates, college-age men are ________ likely to engage in unsafe sexual practices and ________ likely to die in auto crashes. (Points : 1)       a. more; more b. more; less c. equally; more d. more; equally e. equally; equally| 15. At a social gathering, Latin Americans may behave in a manner that North Americans consider intrusive and overly expressive. This best illustrates the importance of being sensitive to differing: (Points : 1)       a. norms. b. gene complexes. c. gender identities. . heritability estimates. | 16. In emphasizing that the behavioral effects of heredity depend on the specific environment in which one is raised, psychologists are highlighting the importance of: (Points : 1)       a. the double helix. b. gene complexes. c. natural selection. d. nature-nurture interactions. | 17. Compared to women, men are ________ likely to feel comfortable about having casual sex with different partners and ________ likely to feel jealous rage over a mate’s having sex with someone else. (Points : 1)       a. less; more b. more; less c. less; less d. more; more| 18.
Concepts of maleness and femaleness that influence our perceptions are called gender: (Points : 1)       a. types. b. schemas. c. roles. d. complexes. | 19. Identifying some of the specific genes that contribute to alcoholism would be of most direct interest to: (Points : 1)       a. evolutionary psychologists. b. molecular geneticists. c. gender schema theorists. d. Freudian psychologists. | 20. Adoptive parents are least likely to influence the ________ of their adopted children. (Points : 1)       a. personality traits b. religious beliefs c. political attitudes d. moral values|

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