FLORES, JAKE ICARO, GEMMA PEREZ, WILLIAM Master in Business Administration Administrative Processes and HBO Reaction Paper I. ORGANIZATIONAL SYSTEM AND HUMAN BEHAVIOR Reaction by: William Perez Summary & Synopsis / Analysis & Evaluation The first group discussed the Organizational system and human behaviour. They informed us that human behaviour is complex and every individual is different from one another.
Likewise, the reporter discussed that human being is like other organism that are a product of biological development and environmental interactions. The reporter defines behaviour as a phenotypic trait and as such reflects the history of specific genes, experience and environment and behaviour is how an individual acts and reacts. The reporter also discussed and defined what are values, motivation, conflict and followership.
The reporter discussed that values as an important and enduring beliefs or ideals shared by the member of the culture about what is good and what is not, while he defines that motivation is the general desire or willingness of someone to do something, and as he describes conflicts as a serious disagreement and argument and states that followership is the capacity or willingness to follow of an individual. He also explains the (2) Two approaches to the study of human behaviour, the philosophy and physiology.
The reporter express that philosophy is based on speculation and logic, where he defines speculation is a message expressing an opinion based on incomplete evidence while he refer logic is science that investigates the principles governing correct and reliable conclusion. While the report illustrates the physiology as a subdivision of behavioural neuroscience that studies the neutral mechanism of perception and behaviour through direct manipulation of the brains based on experimental observation. This group also explains the (4) four elements that affect the behaviour and he mentions as follows: people, structure, environment and technology.
He labels people as the composition of individual or group with diverse educational background, values, abilities and perception. The reporter also informed us that the structure pertains to formal relationship between and use of the people. He also defines environment as the physical and biological factors that affect an individual human being and while he tells that the technology used too efficiently accomplish any given tasks. The group illustrates what is human act and act of man, they define human act are the things done with intellect, will, knowledge and consent.
Human act are either good or evil. They also defines act of man as act that does not involve the intellect and will such as following in love as their concrete example. Page 1 of 20 FLORES, JAKE ICARO, GEMMA PEREZ, WILLIAM Master in Business Administration Administrative Processes and HBO Reaction Paper This group further discussed the organizational structure, they expound that organization is a social unit of people, systematically structured and managed to meet a need or to pursue collective goals on a continuing basis.
The reporter gives explanation of the organizational structure and defines as a framework within which an organization arranges its line of authorities and communications and allocates rights and duties. They rationalize why do we need an organizational structure, they put in plain words that all organization have a management structures that determines the relationship with functions and position and subdivides and delegates roles and responsibility and authority to carry out defined task.
The group illustrates the different types of organizational structures: tall, flat, virtual and boundary less organizational structures. They differentiates that tall organizational structure is the simplest form the structure requires taller hierarchy and results one long chain of command just like the military. The flat organizational structure have fewer management level with each level controlling a broad area or group, the organization focus on empowering employees rather than adhering to the chain of command.
The virtual organizational structure can be thought of as a way in which the organization uses the information and communication technologies to replace and augment some aspect of the organization. The group site that the people who are virtually organized primarily interact by electronic means such and provide an example to an organization with help desk that links the market and client via telephone and or internet. The boundary less organizational structure is a contemporary approach in organizational design; they are defined by or limited by horizontal, vertical or external boundaries imposed by a pre-defined structure.
They behave like an organism encouraging better integration among employees and close partnership with the stakeholder. Another member of the group discussed the features of organizational structure; the reporter states that it determines the manner and extent to which roles, power and responsibilities are delegated. He also describe that the organizational structures depends on objective and strategies and act as perspective through the individuals can see their organization and its environment.
They also account the importance of the organizational structure as follows; impact effectiveness and efficiency, reduces redundant actions, promotes team works, improve communication and contributes to the success and failure of an organization. The group also defines the social system as the people in the society considered as a system organized by a characteristic pattern of relationship. They also describe mutual interest and ethics. Mutual interest is defined as sharing in the common good towards other like the employee-employer relationship.
Ethics is the moral principles that govern a person’s or group’s behaviour. They provide Page 2 of 20 FLORES, JAKE ICARO, GEMMA PEREZ, WILLIAM Master in Business Administration Administrative Processes and HBO Reaction Paper us with examples of ethics in the organization such as confidentiality, respect for individual, loyalty, punctuality and conflict of interest. The reporter also explained and defined business ethics as a form of applied ethics or professional ethics that examines ethical principles and moral or ethical problems that arise in a business environment.
It also applies to all aspects of business conduct and is relevant to the conduct of individuals and entire organizations. They also express that ethics is essential to an organization because ethics is guided of principles designed to help professionals conduct business honestly and with integrity and how professional are supposed to approach problems, based on organization’s core values and the standards. The first group also describes the basic approaches on organization behaviour. The different approaches are as follows: human resource, contingency, system and result oriented.
The human resource approach it concerns with the growth and development of human resource in an organization towards high levels in terms of competency, creativity and productivity in work. In this approach, managers can be decide what should be done and then closely manage and controlled by employees in this way to ensure task performance in an organization and organization and its management always give directives and controlling tool to mangers to effectively management of organization. The contingency approach different managerial behaviours are required in an organization by different for effectiveness.
In this approach managers try to search for problems and apply their knowledge for solutions of that problems, each stages in problem clearly defined and make step by step solutions for problem for effectiveness in task performance. This approach encourages managers in organization to analyse of each situation prior to action and the analysis of current trends about people in organization. The system approach describes organization are interdependent and there many subsystem contained with larger organization and the organization generally require inputs which are engaged some process and make outputs.
The results oriented approach is always considered to set task and goals which can be getting results in the right time and can be measured in terms of economic input and outputs with special reference to human and social input also play vital role in this approach. The group describes the different characteristic of unhealthy and healthy organizations. They expound the topic in plain words that everybody in the class understands. Page 3 of 20 FLORES, JAKE ICARO, GEMMA PEREZ, WILLIAM Master in Business Administration Administrative Processes and HBO Reaction Paper
Reaction The group discuss the topic in a manner that every listener in the class can understand. They site different examples that every individual could share their actual experience and practice in different organization that they belongs to. The reporters provide the class with the materials that are readable and comprehensible. The topic is a broad topic that any questions that a member of the class can open other topics that will be discuss in succeeding reports. I can say the group deliver the report, give explanations and justice to the different topics that they covered.
And with the help our professor the class discusses different scenarios that open our minds in different learning and realization about the organizational system and human behaviour that can help in our daily working lives. II. THEORIES AND MODELS OF ORGANIZATIONAL BEHAVIOR Reaction by: JAKE R. FLORES Summary & Synopsis The group discussed about the Organizational Behaviour, where they defined it as actions and attitudes of individuals and groups toward one another and toward the organization as a whole, and its effect on the organization’s functioning and performance.
They also focused on the discussion on strategies for motivation which gave focus on the motivation of employees in the organization. Further, Douglas McGregor’s X & Y Theory of motivation was fairly discussed in during the day. This theory assumed that those in Theory X are the people who inherently dislike work, must be coerced or controlled to do work to achieve objectives and they prefer to be directed, while Theory Y assumes that people under this theory are people who view work as being as natural as play and rest while they exercise self-direction and -control towards achieving objectives and these eople learns to accept and seek responsibility. Below Motivational Theories were given attention during the discussion. • Maslow’s theory (1943) based on his pyramid employees need to satisfy different needs starting with those which are lowest in the pyramid and finishing with the higher. • McClelland’s theory (1961). Employees are motivated from three essential needs, need for achievement, need for affiliation and need for power. Which need is more important defines the way that this employee is motivated. Page 4 of 20 FLORES, JAKE ICARO, GEMMA PEREZ, WILLIAM Master in Business Administration Administrative Processes and HBO Reaction Paper Vroom’s theory (1964). Employees develop a perception of probability that the choice of a particular performance will lead to a desired outcome. So, employees are motivated when they receive this desired outcome. • Adam’s theory (1965). Employees are motivated by fairness, their input to be equal with their output. In case that this equality does not exist, employees are driven to feelings of inequality. • Herzberg’s theory (2002). Employees are motivated from motivational factors (achievement, recognition, responsibility and nature of the work, personal growth and advancement).
There are also hygiene factors (salary, job security, working conditions, level and quality of supervision, company policy and administration and interpersonal relations) which their absence cause dissatisfaction but their presence is not a motivational factor. Moreover, the team discussed the Five Models of Organizational Behavior: • Autocratic Model. The autocratic model depends on power. Those who are in command must have the power to demand “you do this-or else,” meaning that an employee who does not follow orders will be penalized. In an autocratic environment the managerial orientation is formal, official authority.
This authority is delegated by right of command over the people to it applies. Under autocratic environment the employee is obedience to a boss, not respect for a manager. The psychological result for employees is dependence on their boss, whose power to hire, fire, and “perspire” them is almost absolute. • The Custodial Model. A successful custodial approach depends on economic resources. The resulting managerial orientation is toward money to pay wages and benefits. Since employees’ physical needs are already reasonably met, the employer looks to security needs as a motivating force.
If an organization does not have the wealth to provide pensions and pay other benefits, it cannot follow a custodial approach. The custodial approach leads to employee dependence on the organization. Rather than being dependence on their boss for their weekly bread, employees now depend on organizations for their security and welfare. Employees working in a custodial environment become psychologically preoccupied with their economic rewards and benefits. As a result of their treatment, they are well maintained and contended. However, contentment does not necessarily produce strong motivation; it may produce
Page 5 of 20 FLORES, JAKE ICARO, GEMMA PEREZ, WILLIAM Master in Business Administration Administrative Processes and HBO Reaction Paper only passive cooperation. The result tends to be those employees do not perform much more effectively than under the old autocratic approach. • The Supportive Model. The supportive model depends on leadership instead of power or money. Through leadership, management provides a climate to help employees grow and accomplish in the interests of the organization the things of which they are capable.
The leader assumes that workers are not by nature passive and resistant to organizational needs, but that they are made so by an inadequately supportive climate at work. They will take responsibility, develop a drive to contribute, and improve themselves if management will give them a chance. Management orientation, therefore, is to support the employee’s job performance rather than to simply support employee benefit payments as in the custodial approach. Since management supports employees in their work, the psychological result is a feeling of participation and task involvement in the organization.
Employee may say “we” instead of “they” when referring to their organization. Employees are more strongly motivated than by earlier models because of their status and recognition needs are better met. Thus they have awakened drives for work. • The Collegial Model. A useful extension of the supportive model is the collegial model. The term “collegial” relates to a body of people working together cooperatively. The collegial model depends on management’s building a feeling of partnership with employees. The result is that employees feel needed and useful.
They feel that managers are contributing also, so it is easy to accept and respect their roles in their organization. Managers are seen as joint contributors rather than as bosses. The managerial orientation is toward teamwork. Management is the coach that builds a better team. The employee’s response to this situation is responsibility. For example employees produce quality work not because management tells them to do so or because the inspector will catch them if they do not, but because they feel inside themselves an obligation to provide others with high quality.
They also feel an obligation to uphold quality standards that will bring credit to their jobs and company. The psychological result of the collegial approach for the employee is self-discipline. Feeling responsible, employees discipline themselves for performance on the team in the same way that the members of a football team discipline themselves to training standards and the rules of the game. In this kind of environment employees normally feel some degree of Page 6 of 20 FLORES, JAKE ICARO, GEMMA PEREZ, WILLIAM Master in Business Administration Administrative Processes and HBO Reaction Paper ulfillment, worthwhile contribution, and self-actualization, even though the amount may be modest in some situation. This self-actualization will lead to moderate enthusiasm in performance. • The System Model. Managers must increasingly demonstrate a sense of caring and compassion, being sensitive to the needs of a diverse workforce with rapidly changing needs and complex personal and family needs. In response, many employees embrace the goal of organizational effectiveness, and reorganize the mutuality of company-employee obligations in a system viewpoint.
They experience a sense of psychological ownership for the organization and its product and services. Analysis & Evaluation Looking back to the report made by the group, I agree that they made an effort to research on their assigned topic, but I find it lacking, since they focused more on the Motivational Theories and not on the Organizational Theory and Behavior itself. Though it is fine that they focused only on the handouts given by Dr. Agong, I am expecting them to discuss also the Organizational Theories: • Classical Organizational Theory o o o • • Scientific Management Approach Webbers Bureaucratic Approach Administrative Approach
Neo Classical Theory Modern Organizational Theory o o o Systems Approach Socio-technical Approach Contingency or Situational Approach Their report would have been more interesting and focused should they have tried to complete the aspects of their report and should they have think out of the box to discuss further on the topic to which they were assigned. Page 7 of 20 FLORES, JAKE ICARO, GEMMA PEREZ, WILLIAM Master in Business Administration Administrative Processes and HBO Reaction Paper
Reaction The report held my interest as a private company employee, I came to know the aspects of the Organization which I am in currently, and identify to which kind of organization I am in. I realized during discussions with the topic that organizations adapts different kinds of organizational structures and models that best suit the kind of culture that the organization has. Though I find the report short of the topic on the organizational theories, they have compromised it in discussing to us the Theories in Motivation. Questions that bothered me were answered by Dr. Agong and I was able to get the expected answer I want. III.
MOTIVATION AND HUMAN BEHAVIOR Reaction by: JAKE R. FLORES Summary & Synopsis Motivation is the force that initiates, guides and maintains goal-oriented behaviours. It is what causes us to take action, whether to grab a snack to reduce hunger or enrol in college to earn a degree. The forces that lie beneath motivation can be biological, social, emotional or cognitive in nature. Researchers have developed a number of different theories to explain motivation. Each individual theory tends to be rather limited in scope. However, by looking at the key ideas behind each theory, you can gain a better understanding of motivation as a whole.
There are many individual motivational factors that are combined with different motivation theories. Each theory provides a different way to suggest what is important for employees and how employees can be motivated through these needs. Instinct Theory of Motivation. According to instinct theories, people are motivated to behave in certain ways because they are evolutionarily programmed to do so. An example of this in the animal world is seasonal migration. These animals do not learn to do this, it is instead an inborn pattern of behavior.
William James created a list of human instincts that included such things as attachment, play, shame, anger, fear, shyness, modesty and love. The main problem with this theory is that it did not really explain behavior, it just described it. By the 1920s, instinct theories were pushed aside in favor of other Page 8 of 20 FLORES, JAKE ICARO, GEMMA PEREZ, WILLIAM Master in Business Administration Administrative Processes and HBO Reaction Paper motivational theories, but contemporary evolutionary psychologists still study the influence of genetics and heredity on human behavior.
Incentive Theory of Motivation. The incentive theory suggests that people are motivated to do things because of external rewards. For example, you might be motivated to go to work each day for the monetary reward of being paid. Behavioral learning concepts such as association and reinforcement play an important role in this theory of motivation. Drive Theory of Motivation. According to the drive theory of motivation, people are motivated to take certain actions in order to reduce the internal tension that is caused by unmet needs.
For example, you might be motivated to drink a glass of water in order to reduce the internal state of thirst. This theory is useful in explaining behaviors that have a strong biological component, such as hunger or thirst. The problem with the drive theory of motivation is that these behaviors are not always motivated purely by physiological needs. For example, people often eat even when they are not really hungry. Arousal (Drive) Theory of Motivation. The arousal theory of motivation suggests that people take certain actions to either decrease or increase levels of arousal.
When arousal levels get too low, for example, a person might watch and exciting movie or go for a jog. When arousal levels get too high, on the other hand, a person would probably look for ways to relax such as meditating or reading a book. According to this theory, we are motivated to maintain an optimal level of arousal, although this level can vary based on the individual or the situation. Humanistic Theory of Motivation. Humanistic theories of motivation are based on the idea that people also have strong cognitive reasons to perform various actions.
This is famously illustrated in Abraham Maslow’s hierarchy of needs, which presents different motivations at different levels. First, people are motivated to fulfill basic biological needs for food and shelter, as well as those of safety, love and esteem. Once the lower level needs have been met, the primary motivator becomes the need for selfactualization, or the desire to fulfill one’s individual potential. Analysis & Evaluation The report is convincing since the items discussed were based on the hand-outs given by Dr.
Agong, but I guess the same was not researched well because there are lacking ideas and theories that I guess need to be discussed with the group and that is the Contemporary Theories of Motivation since Motivation was clearly discussed during the report of the another group (please see reaction II) Page 9 of 20 FLORES, JAKE ICARO, GEMMA PEREZ, WILLIAM Master in Business Administration Administrative Processes and HBO Reaction Paper In general, contemporary motivation theories are dominated by three separate but interrelated constructs: expectancy, value, and achievement goals.
As defined in the early twenty-first century, expectancy has to do with beliefs about ability (Can I do it? ). Values are concerned with preferences and desires (Do I want it? ). And goals capture purpose or the reasons for engaging in achievement activities (Why am I doing this? ). Beliefs about ability: Attribution theory. Three theories have addressed beliefs about ability. The first is attribution theory as developed by Bernard Weiner. Attributions are inferences about the causes of success and failure. (e. g. , “Why did I get a poor grade on the exam? or “Why did I get the highest grade? “) Among the most prevalent inferred causes of success and failure are ability (aptitude), effort, task difficulty or ease, luck, mood, and help or hindrance from others. According to Weiner, these causes have certain underlying characteristics, which are known as causal dimensions. Causes differ in locus, or whether the cause is internal or external to the person; stability, which designates as cause as constant or varying over time; and in controllability, or the extent to which a cause is subject to volitional alteration.
For example, low aptitude as a cause for failure is considered to be internal to the actor, stable over time, and uncontrollable, whereas lack of effort is judged as internal, but variable over time and subject to volitional control. Each of these causal dimensions is linked to particular consequences that have motivational significance. For example, the stability dimension is related to expectancy for future success. When failure is attributed to a stable cause such as low ability, one is more likely to expect the same outcome to occur again than when the cause of failure is due to an un-stable factor such as lack of effort.
Thus the failing student who believes that he or she did not try hard enough can be bolstered by the expectation that failure need not recur again. Guided by these known linkages between causal stability and expectancy, attribution retraining programs have been developed that teach students to attribute failure to lack of effort rather than lack of ability. Many successful programs have been reported in which retrained students show greater persistence when they encounter challenging tasks, more confidence, and more positive attitudes toward school work.
The controllability dimension is related to a number of interpersonal affects, such as pity and anger. Pity and sympathy are experienced toward others whose failures are caused by uncontrollable factors (think of the teacher’s reactions to the retarded child who continually experiences academic difficulty). In contrast, anger is elicited when others’ failures are due to causes within their control (imagine that Page 10 of 20 FLORES, JAKE ICARO, GEMMA PEREZ, WILLIAM Master in Business Administration Administrative Processes and HBO Reaction Paper ame teacher’s affect toward the gifted student who never completes assignments). These emotional reactions also can serve as indirect attributional cues (i. e. , they provide information about the cause of achievement). If a teacher expresses pity and sympathy following student failure, that student tends to make a low ability attribution. Hence, pity from others can undermine beliefs about ability. Beliefs about ability: Self-efficacy theory. Popularized by Albert Bandura, self-efficacy refers to individuals’ beliefs about their capabilities to perform well.
When confronted with a challenging task, a person would be enlisting an efficacy belief if they asked themselves: “Do I have the requisite skills to master this task? ” Unlike causal beliefs in attribution theory, which are explanations for past events, efficacy percepts are future oriented. They resemble expectations for personal mastery of subsequent achievement tasks. Also unlike attribution theory, which focuses on the perceived stability of causes as a determinant of expectancy, efficacy theorists have articulated a much more extensive set of antecedents, including prior accomplishments, modeling, persuasion, and emotional arousal.
For example, physiological symptoms signaling anxiety, such as rapid heart beat or sweaty palms, might function as cues to the individual that he or she lacks the requisite skills to successfully complete a task. According to Bandura, perceived efficacy determines how much effort a person is willing to put into an activity as well as how long they will persevere in the face of obstacles. Many studies have documented the adaptive consequences of high self-efficacy.
For example, it is known that high self-efficacy and improved performance result when students: (1) adopt short-term over long-term goals, inasmuch as progress is easier to judge in the former case; (2) are taught to use specific learning strategies, such as outlining and summarizing, both of which increase attention to the task; and (3) receive performancecontingent rewards as opposed to reinforcement for just engaging in a task, because only in the former case does reward signal task mastery.
All these instructional manipulations are assumed to increase the belief that “I can do it,” which then increases both effort and achievement. Efficacy beliefs have been related to the acquisition of new skills and to the performance of previously learned skills at a level of specificity not found in any other contemporary theory of motivation. Beliefs about ability: Learned helplessness theory. Whereas self-efficacy captures lay understanding of “I can,” helplessness beliefs symbolize shared understanding about the meaning of “I cannot. According to this theory, a state of helplessness exists when failures are perceived as insurmountable, or more technically, when noncontingent reinforcement results in the belief that events are uncontrollable. That belief often is accompanied by passivity, loss of motivation, depressed affect, and performance Page 11 of 20 FLORES, JAKE ICARO, GEMMA PEREZ, WILLIAM Master in Business Administration Administrative Processes and HBO Reaction Paper deterioration. Martin Seligman, a main proponent of the theory, has argued that helplessness becomes a learned phenomenon when individuals nappropriately generalize from an experience with noncontingency in one situation to subsequent situations where control is possible. A prototypical example is the successful student who unexpectedly fails despite high effort and then becomes virtually incapable of completing work that was easily mastered prior to failure. Helplessness theory has a decidedly attributional focus in that Seligman and others maintain that when individuals encounter failure, they ask, “Why? ” How people characteristically answer this question is known as explanatory style.
Some people typically explain bad events by pointing to factors that are internal, stable, and global. (e. g. , “I’m always a failure no matter what I do”). These individuals are believed to have a pessimistic explanatory style. Other people interpret bad events by evoking momentary and specific causes (e. g. , “I just happened to be in the wrong place at the wrong time”). Such individuals are characterized as having an optimistic explanatory style. A pessimistic explanatory style in the achievement domain has been related to poor school grades, reluctance to seek help, diminished aspirations, and ineffective use of learning strategies.
The research of Carol Dweck has focused particularly on individual differences the motivational patterns of children who may be vulnerable to helplessness beliefs. In response to challenging tasks where failure is possible, some children have a mastery-oriented motivational system: they believe that ability is incremental (e. g. , “smartness is something you can increase as much as you want”), they focus on the task rather than their abilities, they enjoy challenge, and they can generate solution-oriented strategies that lead to performance enhancement.
At the other end of the continuum are children who display a helpless motivational pattern: they believe that ability is fixed (e. g. , “how smart you are pretty much stays the same”); they focus on personal inadequacies; express negative affect, including boredom and anxiety; and they show marked deterioration in actual performance. In other words, they display the classic symptoms associated with learned helplessness. In summary, the dominant theme in contemporary motivation research revolves around beliefs about ability as represented by attribution theory, self-efficacy theory, and learned helplessness theory.
Attribution theory has its origins in social psychology and is therefore especially concerned with the situational determinants of motivation and with both self-perception and the perception of others. Selfefficacy theory has emerged from a social learning perspective and therefore has close ties with behavioral change. Learned helplessness theory reflects the influence of clinical and personality Page 12 of 20 FLORES, JAKE ICARO, GEMMA PEREZ, WILLIAM
Master in Business Administration Administrative Processes and HBO Reaction Paper psychology with its focus on coping with failure and individual differences in a presumed motivational trait. Achievement values. There is a much smaller literature on achievement values, the other broad construct in expectancy-value approaches to motivation. Unlike expectancy, which focuses on beliefs about ability, values are more directly concerned with the perceived importance, attractiveness, or usefulness of achievement activities.
Values also are rooted in the moral constructs of “ought” and “should,” as illustrated by the belief that one should try hard in school regardless of his or her perceived abilities. The most extensive research on achievement values has been conducted by Jacque Eccles and Allan Wigfield. These researchers define achievement tasks in terms of their attainment value (the perceived importance of doing well), intrinsic value (how much enjoyment the individual derives from engaging in the task), utility value (how the tasks relates to future goals), and costs (the undesirable consequences of engaging in the task).
Most of the research guided by this conception has selected specific subject matter domains to examine whether task value predicts different consequences, such as course grades and enrollment decisions, or the extent to which value and expectancy are positively or negatively related (according to Atkinson’s theory, these two constructs, Is and P, should be inversely related). The findings of Eccles and Wigfield reveal that how much students value a particular domain influences choice behavior (i. e. , their intention to enroll in particular courses and their actual enrollment).
Task values, however, have little direct impact on actual course grades. Value and expectancy also appear to be positively correlated: individuals judge the tasks that they perceive themselves to be good at as more important, enjoyable, and useful. An unanswered question in this research is the issue of causal sequence. It is unclear whether individuals come to value what they are good at (expectancy [. arrowright] value), or whether individuals develop more confidence over time in the tasks that are most important (value [. arrowright] expectancy). Achievement goals.
Achievement goals capture the reasons why a person engages in achievement behavior, and two broad types have been identified. Students who pursue mastery goals are oriented toward acquiring new skills or improving their level of competence. In contrast, students who adopt performance goals are motivated by the intent to demonstrate that they have adequate ability and avoid displaying signs that they have low ability. According to this analysis, individuals can therefore decide to engage in achievement activities for two very different reasons: They may strive to develop competence Page 13 of 20
FLORES, JAKE ICARO, GEMMA PEREZ, WILLIAM Master in Business Administration Administrative Processes and HBO Reaction Paper by learning as much as they can, or they may strive to publicly display their competence by trying to outperform others. A vast number of studies suggest that mastery goals increase motivation more than do performance goals. The general thinking is that mastery oriented individuals seek out challenge and escalate their efforts when tasks become difficult, whereas performance-oriented individuals see their ability as threatened in challenging situations, which they tend to avoid.
More recent research, however, suggests that adopting performance goals in some situations may enhance motivation. At times the two goal orientations may go hand in hand (people can strive to attain mastery and outperform others) or the pursuit of performance goals (i. e. , comparing one’s self to others) can provide cues that the person is competent and will therefore enhance motivation. It also appears that when performance goals are differentiated by approach (demonstrating ability) and avoidance (concealing low ability) tendencies, it is mainly the avoidance component that compromises sustained achievement strivings.
A related body of research, labeled self-determination theory by Edward Deci and Richard Ryan, conceptualizes achievement goal pursuits in terms of whether they fulfill the individual’s basic needs for competence, autonomy, and relatedness to other people. Goals that satisfy these needs enhance intrinsic motivation. The pioneering research of Deci and Ryan has alerted many educators to the fact that extrinsic rewards, such as grades, gold stars, or even money, can undermine intrinsic motivation if they jeopardize people’s sense of competence and feelings of personal control.
Future Challenges in Motivation Motivation is a rich and changing field that has enjoyed much progress in its relatively brief history. In more than six decades following Hull’s insights, there have been major upheavals in the field (the shift from behaviorism to cognition); new theories and concepts have been introduced, and novel research directions have been pursued (such as the finding that reward can decrease motivation). Principles of motivation have been described that can become the basis for intervention.
Quite a bit is known, for example, about the positive motivational consequences of attributing failure to lack of effort rather than low ability, of selecting tasks of intermediate difficulty, and of focusing on mastery rather than outperforming others. All these principles have good theoretical and empirical grounding. The challenge for the future will be to study motivation in context. Examining achievement expectancy, values, and goals and how they get expressed in the broader context of social and cultural influences might provide important clues for understanding the academic challenges faced by many ethnic minority youth.
Page 14 of 20 FLORES, JAKE ICARO, GEMMA PEREZ, WILLIAM Master in Business Administration Administrative Processes and HBO Reaction Paper Addressing such issues will be a useful step toward promoting the field of motivation in education research and assuring its continued vitality. Reaction This report held my interest as a leader on how to motivate my associates, I find it very useful in the field where I am now as a leader. But there are reactions from my classmates that annoyed me giving some of their experiences that are not in conjunction with the discussion.
There has been no effort on the side of the reporters to research more on their topics, though I appreciate the way they reported it. As we discussed it, I find the piece somewhat a repetition of the 2nd team that reports about Models of Organizational Behaviour. On the brighter side, as the spectator and part of the group, I realize that every employee, either you’re in management side or the staff side, everyone needs MOTIVATION and it’s a must. Thus, management has to find ways to make sure that their employees are motivated.
This is the reason why some of the companies is spending a lot of money in having activities that can boost the motivation of their employees thus in return having a satisfied customer. IV. TRAINING, PERFORMANCE APPRAISAL AND REWARD SYSTEM Reaction by: GEMMA ICARO Summary What is Training? Training is a systematic process through which an organization’s human resources gain knowledge and develop skills by instruction and practical activities that result in improved corporate performance.
Importance of Training Maintains qualified products / services Achieves high service standards Provides information for new comers Refreshes memory of old employees Achieves learning about new things; technology, products / service delivery Reduces mistakes – minimizing costs Opportunity for staff to feedback / suggest improvements Improves communication & relationships – better teamwork Benefits of Training Most training is targeted to ensure trainees “learn” something they apply to their job. A Systematic Approach to Training Page 15 of 20 FLORES, JAKE ICARO, GEMMA PEREZ, WILLIAM
Master in Business Administration Administrative Processes and HBO Reaction Paper Key Concepts in Preparing a Training Plan Before you train and develop people, identify what: They must know – before they can perform job They should know – to improve performance Would be nice for them to know – but not necessary to perform duties. Determining employees’ readiness for training Model of the Training Process Training Needs Analysis includes: Organizational Analysis – involves determining the appropriateness of training, given the business strategy resources available for training support by managers and peers for training.
Job Analysis – involves identifying the important tasks and knowledge, skill, and behaviors that need to be emphasized in training for employees to complete their tasks Individual Analysis – involves determining whether performance deficiencies result from a lack of knowledge, skill, or ability (a training issue) or from a motivational or work design problem identifying who needs training. PERFORMANCE APPRAISAL It is the systematic evaluation of the performance of employee and to understand the abilities of a person for further growth and development.
Objectives of Performance Appraisal Performance Appraisal can be done with following objectives in mind: To maintain records in order to determine compensation packages, wage structure, salaries raises, etc. To identify the strengths and weaknesses of employees to place right men on right job. To maintain and assess the potential present in a person for further growth and development. To provide a feedback to employees regarding their performance and related status. To provide a feedback to employees regarding their performance and related status.
It serves as a basis for influencing working habits of the employees. To review and retain the promotional and other training programmes. Advantages of Performance Appraisal Employees Development: The systematic procedure of performance appraisal helps the supervisors to frame training policies and programmers. It helps to analyze strengths and weaknesses of employees so that new jobs can be designed for efficient employees. It also helps in framing future development programmes. Page 16 of 20 FLORES, JAKE ICARO, GEMMA PEREZ, WILLIAM Master in Business Administration Administrative Processes and HBO Reaction Paper
Communication: For an organization, effective communication between employees and employers is very important. Through performance appraisal, communication can be sought for in the following ways: o Through performance appraisal, the employers can understand and accept skills of subordinates. o The subordinates can also understand and create a trust and confidence in superiors. o It also helps in maintaining cordial and congenial labour management relationship. o It develops the spirit of work and boosts the morale of employees. A general procedure in Performance Appraisal: 1.
Setting performance standards :In this very first step in performance appraisal the HR department decides the standards of performance i. e. they decide what exactly is expected from the employee for each and every job. Sometimes certain marking scheme may be adopted eg. A score 90/100 = excellent performance, a score os 80/100 = good. And so on. 2. Communication standard set to the employee :Standards of performance appraisal decided in 1st step are now conveyed to the employee so that the employee will know what is expected from him and will be able to improve his performance. . Measuring performance :The performance of the employee is now measure by the HR department, different methods can be used to measure performance i. e. traditional and modern method. The method used depends upon the company’s convenience 4. Comparing performance with standard : The performance of the employee is now judged against the standard. To understand the score achieved by him. Accordingly we come to know which category of performance the employee falls into i. e. excellent, very good, good, satisfactory etc.
Intrinsic Rewards Include things such as: sense of accomplishment, feeling of responsibility, chance to learn something new and the fun that comes from performing an interesting, challenging and engaging task. It can be more powerful motivators than an external reward. The following are descriptions of the four intrinsic rewards and how workers view them: Sense of meaningfulness. This reward involves the meaningfulness or importance of the purpose you are trying to fulfil. You feel that you have an opportunity to accomplish something of real value—
Page 17 of 20 FLORES, JAKE ICARO, GEMMA PEREZ, WILLIAM Master in Business Administration Administrative Processes and HBO Reaction Paper something that matters in the larger scheme of things. You feel that you are on a path that is worth your time and energy, giving you a strong sense of purpose or direction. Sense of choice. You feel free to choose how to accomplish your work—to use your best judgment to select those work activities that make the most sense to you and to perform them in ways that seem appropriate.
You feel ownership of your work, believe in the approach you are taking, and feel responsible for making it work. Sense of competence. You feel that you are handling your work activities well—that your performance of these activities meets or exceeds your personal standards, and that you are doing good, high-quality work. You feel a sense of satisfaction, pride, or even artistry in how well you handle these activities. Sense of progress. You are encouraged that your efforts are really accomplishing something.
You feel that your work is on track and moving in the right direction. You see convincing signs that things are working out, giving you confidence in the choices you have made and confidence in the future. Important benefits of the intrinsic rewards o From the organization’s viewpoint, our data confirm the impact of the intrinsic rewards on employee self-management. For example, people with high reward levels show greater concentration and are rated as more effective by their bosses. But the benefits extend beyond self-management.
The intrinsic rewards are strong predictors of retention. Note that this is the “right” kind of retention—keeping the people who are energized and self-managing rather than those who can’t afford to leave. We find that employees with high levels of intrinsic rewards also become informal recruiters and marketers for their organization. They recommend the organization to friends as a place to work and recommend its products and services to potential customers. The intrinsic rewards are also a relatively healthy and sustainable source of motivation for employees.
There is little chance of burnout with this form of motivation. Workers with high reward levels experience more positive feelings and fewer negative ones on the job. Their job satisfaction is higher, they report fewer stress symptoms, and are more likely to feel that they are developing professionally. LEVELS OF INTRINSIC REWARDS High-range scorers experience the four intrinsic rewards most intensely. These rewards are highly energizing and engaging. Middle-range oscrers experience these same rewards to a more moderate degree—as somewhat positive but limited.
For example, their work may seem reasonably meaningful when they stop to think of it; they may have a fair amount of choice but have to live with some decisions that don’t make sense to them; they may feel they do most things pretty well but not a few others; and they may feel they are making some progress but less than they would like. They experience these reward levels as moderately energizing and engaging—enough to put in a “fair day’s work,” but end up feeling less satisfied than they would like. Low-range scorers are dissatisfied with many aspects of their work.
They may feel their work is relatively meaningless or pointless, that they are unable to make or influence decisions about how to do their work, are unable to perform work activities very well, and are making little or no headway. o Page 18 of 20 FLORES, JAKE ICARO, GEMMA PEREZ, WILLIAM Master in Business Administration Administrative Processes and HBO Reaction Paper Experiencing these feelings drains the workers of energy and they are likely to become cynical and resentful about their job over time. EXTRINSIC REWARDS What Are Extrinsic Rewards?
These are concrete rewards that employees can find very motivating, and to be most effective should be provided fairly, strategically, and linked to performance. Reward systems serve several purposes in organizations. Effective rewards help an organization reduce turnover and hold on to good employees. Reward systems also can positively affect employee motivation and be an important part of the image of an organization to its’ prospective employees and stakeholders. Examples of Extrinsic Rewards: Bonuses – e. g. 3th month bonus, mid-year bonus, 14th month to 16th month bonuses Raises – salary appraisal Paid Vacations – out of town trips, out of the country incentive trips Promotions Profit sharing Tuition Reimbursement Analysis and Evaluation The role of training in an organization development is making the employee a better work for better productivity in the organization. Training involves changing skills, knowledge, attitudes, or behavior. Organizations spend millions of peso on formal courses and training programs to develop worker’s skills.
When organization spends that amount on money, they want to get the most out of their money. An organization wants to make a better employee to help the organization, so the company does not want to waste money on training. Measuring the effectiveness of training programs consumes valuable time and resources. Consider also that the business environment is not standing still. Your competitors, technology, legislation and regulations are constantly changing. What was a successful training program yesterday may not be a cost-effective program tomorrow.
Being able to measure results will help you adapt to such changing circumstances. The performance appraisal process often is stressful for both employers and employees. Workers often are afraid of being judged and sometimes fear they will be misjudged for the wrong reasons. Managers and supervisors, especially those who have a strong need to be liked, might not want to tell workers when they are performing poorly. However, it is important to be objective and truthful during the appraisal process if you want to improve an employee’s performance. It also is important to give Page 19 of 20
FLORES, JAKE ICARO, GEMMA PEREZ, WILLIAM Master in Business Administration Administrative Processes and HBO Reaction Paper employees the opportunity to express their reactions to the performance appraisal in a positive manner, whether the specific reaction itself is positive or negative. In an organization, human resource is one of the most important sources. Rewards and incentive could be referred as a performance linked compensation paid to improve motivation and productivity of the employees. It implies monetary inducements offered to employees to perform beyond acceptance standard.
Reactions In general, the group presented the report very well. Just to add to the topic, rewards, in general could be described as important motivators. Their effectiveness depends upon three factors: drives, preference value and satisfying value of goal objects. While budgetary restrictions and temporary improvements in performance place a limit on the potency of money as a motivator, non-financial incentives involve only human ingenuity as investment and also insure a relatively stable acceleration in output. Monetary rewards imply external motivation, non-monetary incentives involve internal motivation.
Both are important. It is a judicious mix up of the two that tends to cement rewards with motivation. Whether in public or private sector all employees have one thing in common: they want their efforts to be recognized and possibly rewarded. This actuality compels employers to tailor special programs in order to reward and encourage their employees to perform even better. Every individual has a great potential to offer excellent output at his or her working place. However, the working environment and the motivational factors determine whether an employee becomes an asset or a liability to the organization he or she works for.
There are numerous tools and techniques utilized in the business arena for the purposes of creating employee satisfaction and to trigger the required positive reaction. Normally organizations deliberately set programs to routinely award and recognize the efforts exerted by employees in order to enhance new differentiated behavior to ultimately benefit the organizations. And when it comes to performance appraisal I think it is important to involve workers in the process of determining their individual performance ratings throughout the appraisal process.
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