Macro sociology- large scale patterns Ex: Illness: macro could be you get sick and have a lot of doctor bills macro could be there aren’t room in hospitals for all the sick people Ex: unemployment: macro could be you don’t have any money to buy yourself clothes macro could be a recession BC people don’t have Jobs Why study sociology? Making informed decisions, understanding diversity, social and public policies, thinking critically, and expands career opportunities. Making Informed decisions Sociological knowledge will help you make Informed decisions Second guess common sense claims Methods as a criteria
See the big picture understanding diversity Central theme in sociology Leads to understanding differing characteristics Social and public polices Be able to engage in social change Society Research Theoretical perspectives Involved in applied, clinical, and policy settings Thinking critically Enhances knowledge and problem solving Takes into consideration all views and data Expands career opportunities Sociologists find careers in Administrative support Management Social services Counseling Sales and marketing Origins of sociological theory Augusta Comet Papa of sociology Coined term Info should be empirical
Info should be based on data Saw sociology as study of Social static Ex: education and politics Social dynamics Change over time Harriet Martinets The mother of sociology Translated the work of Comet Wrote the 1st sociology methods book Data collection Objection analysis A feminist and opponent of slavery and rights to elderly Dismissed as too radical Emilee Druthers Believed in the study of social facts Discussed division of labor in society Researched social integration Druthers social facts Believed sociology should study social facts Social facts are external and measurable 3 types: material-demographic on material- communication social currents Druthers Division of Labor Division of labor connects to social solidarity Division of labor-interdependence of tasks Social solidarity-social cohesiveness Druthers Social Integration First study of data to support a sociological theory Suicide meaningful relationships=vicissitude???????
Ask some Karl Marx Capitalism Class conflict Alienation Marx: Capitalism Said capitalism produces division Capitalism: ownership of means of production in private hands Breeds 3 social classes Capitalists-owners Petit bourgeoisie-small business owners Proletariat-masses of workers Marx: class conflict Society comprised of haves and have onto Capitalism leads to class conflict haves: exploit workers have onto: resist but depend on haves Bloody revolution lead to classlessness Marx: Alienation Capitalism leads to alienation Alienation- feeling of separation from society Both classes are alienated Proletariat b/c they don’t own Capitalists b/c purely profile ? Akers HOW: read rest of chi 1 Tuesday September 2 Thinking Like a Sociologist (chi 1 part 2) Max Weber: Social Organization Society is shaped and changed by: Ideas, religious values, ideologies, and charismatic leaders Understand society wrought Social organization and interrelationships Protestant Ethic and The Spirit of Capitalism Max Weber: Subjective understanding Subjective understanding of behavior Overstress Direct observational understanding Explanatory understanding Max Weber: value- free sociology Value free sociology Separate personal from the scientific Provide knowledge not personal ideology Jane Adams Co-founded the Hull House (social worker) Leader in the peace prize winner Nobel peace prize winner Contributed to symbolic interactions and criminally Ignored by her male colleagues W. E. B.
DUBOS Wrote books on African and black Americans Received PhD from Harvard Helped found NAACP Race problem one of ignorance Seen as radical Beef with Book T. Washington Contemporary Theories Functionalism Conflict theory Feminist theory Symbolic Interaction Functionalism: Overview Founders Comet and Druthers Interdependent parts working together Spence’s organic analogy Vital organs functioning together Functionalism: society as a social system Society is composed of major institutions: Like education, government, and more Have structures, organized units Connected Where behavior occurs Functionalism: functions and dysfunctions Each structure has functions
Purposes and activities Contribute to stability and survival Organized units also have dysfunctions Patterns with a negative impact Functionalism: manifest and Latent functions Two kinds of functions Manifest Intended and recognized Latent Unintended and unrecognized Criticisms of functionalism Glosses over inequality of power Narrow view White middle class male lens Application of functionalism to fashion Fashion houses show new styles every season Some catch on and are adopted Wealthy distinguish themselves through fashion Functions to distinguish between classes Conflict Theory overview Emphasizes how and why groups Disagree, struggle, and compete Sees disagreement and change positively Conflict theory: sources of conflict Source of economic inequality race, gender, and other factors acknowledges society functions but asks: Who benefits? Who is at a disadvantage?
Conflict Theory: on social inequality Society as a system of Widespread inequality Tensions Between haves and have onto Criticisms of Conflict Theory Overemphasized competition At expense of cooperation Have onto can increase their power Presents a negative view of society Application of Conflict Theory to Fashion Fashion is a way big players a make profit Introduce new options to keep people buying Distracts workers from larger problems Maintain equilibrium Feminist Theory overview Takes conflict theory a step further Women suffer injustice Believe in fair and equal treatment by: Gender, race, age, and more Frees women from traditional expectations Feminist Theory: research on women Lack of research about women Not until after the sass was their research on: Gender roles, fathers, or partner violence Feminist theory: many perspectives Liberal-social and legal reform Radical- male dominance in institutions Global- intersection in developing Critiques of Feminist theory
Avoids different points of view Focus on white female middle class Downplays social class Focus on personal issues Application of Feminist theory to fashion Fashion as patriarchy Takes time and money Fashion imprisons women Symbolic Interactions overview Micro-level perspective analyzing behavior: Knowledge, ideas, beliefs and attitudes People interpret or define actions Symbolic Interactions: constructing meaning Society is socially constructed Meaning is created and modified through social interaction People take into account others in behavior Symbolic Interactions: symbols and shared meaning Subjective interpersonal meaning of symbols Words, gestures, or pictures That stand for something Have different meanings Effective interaction involves: Shared meanings-agreed on definitions Definition of the situation-> perception and reaction to reality Definition of the situation taught by Significant others-relatives and friends Critiques of Symbolic interactions Overlooks macro level factors Optimistic and unrealistic view of choices Ignores the irrational and unconscious Application of symbolic interactions to fashion Clothes as symbols Helps communicate: Who we are Who others are HOW: chi 2 pas 21-30
Thursday Seep 4 Examining Our Social World Social Research Social research Has systematic rules and procedures Scientific Method Involves: Exact measurement Accurate recording Once data is collected researchers Conduct an analysis Interpret If possible generalize Basic Concepts Concept Abstract idea representing social life Social changes in different conditions Types of variables Independent Cause Occurs first Dependent Effect Occurs second Control Constant Hypothesis Expected relationship between variables Typically based on previous research Reliability and Validity Approaches to examining relationships Deductive-general to specific Begins with theory Then data collection Inductive- specific to general Begins with observation Collects data Hypothesis that could be theory Sampling: population vs.. Sample Population Entire group of interest Expensive Time consuming At times impossible Types of Sampling Probability Equal opportunity of selection Random selection Possible to generalize Non-probability No attempt at representing the population Exploratory research The Research Process 1 . Choose a topic Guided by theory 2.
Summarize related research Literature review 3. Formulate a hypothesis 4. Describes the methods 5. Collects the data 6. Present the findings 7. Analyze and explain the results Provides new results Refines existing theories Qualitative vs.. Quantitative Qualitative-examines nonnumeric material In-depth description Quantitative-numerical analysis Generalization Correlation and causation Can’t prove cause-and-effect Many alternate variable at hand Instead researches use correlation Strength of relationship between variables Sociologist suggest or indicate relationships Correlation does not mean causation Surveys Systematically collects data from respondents Come in many forms
Questionnaires, face to face, or telephone Some surveys use a combination Administer by researchers or self-administer Types of surveys random sample survey random digit dialing computer assisted telephone interviewing surveys sent by computers Inexpensive Simple to administer Fast turn around Face to face have high response rate In depth interview provides rich detail Survey Disadvantages Mail has low response rate Easily discarded if misunderstood Social desirability bias People lie Telephone Secondary analysis of existing data Info collected by someone else Can include many different materials Longitudinal-across time Cross-sectional-at one time Secondary Data Analysis Advantages Convenient Can examine trends Secondary Data Analysis Disadvantages Not have info needed Historical data difficult to obtain Field Research Observing people in their natural surrounding There are different types: Participant observation Nonparticipating observation Ethnologist Field Research Advantages Provides in depth info More flexible Field Research Disadvantages Can be expensive May need to learn a language Can be dangerous Read rest of chapter 2 Tuesday 9/9 Content Analysis Systematically examines communication Speeches, newspapers, songs, and poems
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