The interdependence of humans and our environment means that systems practice in the domain of sustainable development can not concentrate on human factors alone, there is a wide range of elements included in the sustainable development issues and as practitioners must put their hands on all aspects in order to generate successful sustainable development operations, so hierarchies and systems levels should be significant in order to group and structure the involved elements. Hierarchies and systems level should not be disregarded while implementing sustainable development operations no matter what is the individuals system of interest whereas individuals’ actions are relevant to a range of levels, so hierarchies and systems level should be used to categorize these actions and to figure out how to facilitate the interactions between all levels to achieve the required objectives, as these random individual actions can not be followed by a certain result by itself.
In addition, it is not always possible to predict what properties may emerge at different situations unless the usage of hierarchies and systems level as they possess emergent properties by which can not be provided by the sub systems B. Sustainable development provides an example of a domain of activity that many have experienced as complex. System practice seems a sensible way to engage with this domain as in the domains of ‘information systems’ and ‘organizations’ that were explored using systems thinking. Sustainable development issues and situations are best understood by recognizing systems, boundaries, environments and their interconnections. Sustainable development issues have range of perspectives, both on the domain and on systems practice in this domain.
First order is to accept that there are general rules must be applied to situations in the identification of objects process and well define properties, describe the set of operations functioning independently in order to gather the required data to design a process. First order put practitioners’ hands on how things happened and how to be solved. Second order is to use and utilize the data took from the first order in order to achieve second order change by stepping outside the box and be able to realize the whole situation without being objective or subjective. That makes practitioners recognize that all perceptions and actions can not be undertaken as independent actions when it comes to building up a second order process.
First order is about gathering the required data to create a system of interest by identifying the problem, objective and situation while a Second order process is to realize the big picture without focusing on an independent actions/perceptions and be fully aware that those actions can be gathered and interconnected to achieve the system of interest objective.
Question 3: In this case study the practitioner (hereafter Powell) tried to design process through out gathering all data about all resources in the given area to support stakeholders develop applicable and conservative plans by which could serve the sustainable development operations; therefore, he had to work with the inhabitants who have independent systems of interest and then he disregarded many critical issues.
Powell tried to apply the BECM concept in order to design a system by which can gather the appropriate classifications for natural resources by bushmen there and put it in maps, he found out that if he added complex geographical systems to the process, it would result in failure because the nature of such systems can not assist researchers on permanent basis to interpret the information obtained as the context of the problem should be exposed day after another and the mentioned above systems can deal with fixed input whereas the bushmen interpretation of complex nature and the sources of survivals available is dynamically changing in place and time.
Question 4: Value refers to meaning something that an individual or group regards as something good or that gives meaning to life. Values are deeply held convictions which guide behaviors and decisions. Personal values are the components of a life of integrity. When honoring values a person feels right, in-tune with and true to themselves. Values include integrity, generosity, diligence, persistence and humor. Belief is considered to be thinkers starting point for a sequence of reasoning. Beliefs include individual thoughts about aspects of life, the way it is and the way it should be like when an individual observes the education issue.
Circumstances are used to refer to personal factors, such as experience and role that affect how a situation is perceived like when 2 different people are exposed to the same situation, they will act differently according to how each one perceived the situation and his previous experience in similar situations such being exposed to a problem in the airport, one of them might act wisely and check out the factors that led to such inconvenience and solve it and the other might be aggressive. First Order Identify objects Gathering data about operations functioning independently Well defined properties Second Order Aware of the system objectives System design Process System design process Commons Inhabitants Sparse Hunters Stands Workers Bushmen Thorny bushes Others Herdsmen Geographical system Systems of interest
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