While elaborating the ideas provided in the chapter, the students may need to be familiarizes with a few fundamental concepts such as Gross Domestic Product, Employment etc. Since the students may find this difficult to understand, it is necessary to explain to them through examples. Several activities and exercises are suggested in the chapter to help the students understand how a person’s activity could be placed – whether in the primary, secondary or tertiary, organized or unrealized, and public or private sector.
You may encourage the students to talk to various working people around them (such as hop owners, casual workers, vegetable vendors, workshop mechanics, domestic workers etc. ) to know more about how they live and work. Based on such information, the students can be encouraged to develop their own classification of economic activities. Another important issue to be highlighted is about the problems caused by the changes in the roles of sectors. The chapter has taken the example of unemployment and what the government can do to solve it.
The declining importance 18 of agriculture and growing importance of industry and services should be related to the experience of the children by taking ore examples that they may observe in their day-to-day life. Information derived from the media could be used for this purpose. You may encourage the students to bring important cuttings and stories from newspapers, which could be prominently displayed in storyboards, and encourage the class to discuss these issues. While discussing the unrealized sector, the key issue of protecting the workers engaged in the sector should be highlighted.
You may also encourage the students to visit persons and enterprises in the unrealized sector and get a first hand experience from real life situation. Sources for Information The GAP data used in this chapter pertaining to Gross Domestic Product at Factor Cost by Industry of Origin at 1993-94 prices is taken from Economic Survey. It is a valuable source of GAP and other information relating to the Indian economy. For evaluation purposes, particularly to develop the analytical ability of learners, teachers can refer to Economic Survey to get data for different years.
You will find that people are engaged in various economic activities. Some of these are activities producing goods. Some others are producing services. These activities are happening around us every minute even as we speak. How do we understand these activities? One way of doing this is to group them (classify them) using some important criterion. These groups are also called sectors. There could be several ways of classification depending on the purpose and what one thinks is an important criterion. At different We begin by looking ties. Mind of economic active Primary (Agriculture) Sector produces natural goods Secondary (Industrial) manufactured 20 There are many activities that are undertaken by directly using natural resources. Take, for example, the cultivation of cotton. It takes place within a crop season. For the growth of the cotton plant, we depend mainly, but not entirely, n natural factors like rainfall, sunshine and climate. The product of this activity, cotton, is a natural product. Similarly, in the case of an activity like dairy, we are dependent on the biological process of the animals and availability Tertiary (Service) of fodder etc.
The product here, milk, also is a natural product. Similarly, minerals and ores are also natural products. When we produce a good by exploiting natural resources, it is an activity of the primary sector. Why primary? This is because it forms the base for all other products that we subsequently make. Since most of the natural helps develop products we get are from there sectors agriculture, dairy, fishing, forestry, this sector is also called agriculture and related sector. The secondary sector covers activities in which natural products are changed into other forms through ways of manufacturing that we associate with industrial activity.
It is the next step after primary. The product is not produced by nature but has to be made and therefore some process of manufacturing is essential. This could be in a factory, a workshop or at home. For example, using cotton fiber from the plant, we spin yarn and weave cloth. Using sugarcane as a raw material, we make sugar or guru. We convert earth into bricks and use bricks to make houses and buildings. Since this sector gradually became associated with the different kinds of industries that came up, it is also called as industrial sector.
After primary and secondary, there is a third category of activities that falls under tertiary sector and is different from the above two. These are activities that help in the development of the primary and secondary sectors. These activities, by themselves, do not produce a good but they are an aid or a support for the production process. For example, goods that are produced in the primary or secondary sector would need to be transported by trucks or trains and then sold in wholesale and retail shops.
At times, it may be necessary to store these in godsons. We also may need to talk to others over telephone or send letters (communication) or borrow money from banks (banking) to help production and trade. Transport, storage, communication, banking, trade are some examples of tertiary activities. Since these activities generate services rather than goods, the tertiary sector is also called the service sector. Service sector also includes some essential services that may not directly help in the production of goods.
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